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Chapter 9

TEXTBOOK Chapter 9 - Cognitive Development: The Information-Processing Approach

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Elizabeth Johnson

NotesFromReadingCHAPTER9COGNITIVEDEVELOPMENTTHEINFORMATIONPROCESSINGAPPROACHPGS338381PART ONE InformationProcessing TheoryInformationProcessing ApproachA perspective on cognition and cognitive development in which the human mind is likened to a computer processing information from the environment through perception and attention input encoding it in memory storage and retrieval and applying information to the solution of problems softwareHuman thinking can be adapted to many different situations Limitations of the human cognitive systemoThe amount of information that it can process at one timeoThe speed with which it can process information Basic Assumptions of the InformationProcessing ApproachThinking is information processing oMental activity involves taking information into the mind and operating on it in ways that make it usable oDirects attention to questions about how thinking processes such as attending to and remembering information change as children grow older Mechanisms or processes of change that underlie the processing of information oChildren become better able to represent or encode information in their minds and this mechanism helps them solve problems more efficiently oEncoding strategy construction automatization and generalization help bring about change in childrens cognitive skillsCognitive development is a selfmodifying processoChild uses strategies she has acquired from earlier problem solutions to modify her responses to a new problemoChildren play an active role in their own cognitive development Carful task analysis is crucialoCareful task analysis can reveal much about how children of different ages understand and solve problemsoCareful task analysis often involve error analysis or attending to the errors oMicrogenetic AnalysisA very detailed examination of how a child solves a problem InformationProcessing ModelsTHE MULTISTORE MODEL oMultiStore ModelA model of information processing in which information is depicted as moving through a series of processing unitssensory register shortterm memory and long0term memoryin each of which it may be stored either fleetingly or permanently oSensory RegisterThe mental processing unit that receives information from the environment and stores it fleetinglyoShort Term Memory Working MemoryThe mental processing unti in which information may be stored temporarily the workspace of the mind where a decision must be made to discard information or to transfer it to permanent storage in longterm memoryWithout a specific effort such as rehearsal we generally lose information from shortterm memory within 1530 secondsAbility to use active strategies like rehearsal to keep information in shortterm memory improves with ageoLongTerm MemoryThe mental processing unit in which information may be stored permanently and from which it may later be retrieved
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