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Chapter 10

TEXTBOOK Chapter 10 - Intelligence and Achievement

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Elizabeth Johnson

NotesFromReadingCHAPTER10INTELLIGENCEANDACHIEVEMENTPGS382421Theories of IntelligenceThe Factor Analytic ApproachFactor AnalysisA statistical procedure used to determine which of a number of factors or scores are both closely related to each other and relatively independent of other groups of factors or scores Charles Spearman proposed that intelligence is composed of a general factor g and a number of specific factors soGeneral Factor gGeneral mental energy or ability that is involved in all cognitive tasksoSpecific Factors sFactors that are unique to particular cognitive tasksUnitary concept of intelligence was challenged by Thurstone who proposed secen primary skills that comprise intelligence verbal meaning perceptual speed reasoningnumber rote memory word fluency and spatial visualizationThe InformationProcessing Approach Sternbergs Triarchic TheoryThriarchic Theory of IntelligenceA theory that proposes three major components of intelligent behaviour oInformationprocessing skills are required to encode store and retrieve varying kinds of information oExperience considers how much exposure and practice an individual has had with a particular intellectual task oContext recognizes that intelligence cannot be separated from the situation in which it is used Successful IntelligenceThe ability to fit into mould and choose environments that best fulfill the demands of ones society and culture and ones own needs and desires oAnalytical abilities include those taught and tested in most schools and universities such as reasoning about the best answer to a test questionoCreative abilities are involved in devising new ways of addressing issues and concernsoPractical abilities are used in everyday activities such as work family life and social and professional interactions Tacit KnowledgeImplicit knowledge that is shared by many people and that guides behaviour often referred to as common senseChildren who were instructed with curricula based on the triarchic theory reported enjoying the material more than children taught the same information in traditional wayGardners Theory of Multiple IntelligenceTheory of Multiple IntelligencesGardners multifactorial theory that proposes eight distinct types of intelligence Type of Intelligence DescriptionExamplesLinguistic Sensitivity to word meanings mastery of syntax Poet teacherappreciation of the ways language can be usedLogicalMathematical Understanding of objects symbols the Mathematician scientistactions that can be performed on them and the interrelations among these actions ability to operate in the abstract and to identify problems and seek explanations Spatial Accurate perception of visual world abilitiy to transform Artist engineer chess perceptions and mentally recreate visual experience sensitivity to playertension balance and composition ability to detect similar patternsMusical Sensitivity to musical tones and phrases ability to combine Musician composertones and phrases into larger rhythms and structures awareness of
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