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Chapter 10

PSY220 chapter 10 textbook notes

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY220H5
Professor
Dax Urbszat
Semester
Fall

Description
CHAPTER 10 -need to belong: motivation to bond with others in relationships that provide ongoing positive interactions WHAT LEADS TO FRIENDSHIP AND ATTRACTION? Proximity -interaction -functional distance – how often people’s paths cross -interaction allows individuals to explore their similarities, to sense one another’s liking and to perceive themselves as a social unit -why does proximity breed liking? Availability -more opportunities to get to know someone -anticipation of interaction -even anticipating interaction also increases liking -adaptive  anticipatory liking increases the chance of a rewarding relationship -mere exposure -mere-exposure effect: tendency for new stimuli to be liked more or rated more positively after the person has been repeatedly exposed to them -adaptive  predisposes our attractions and attachments and helped ancestors categorize things/people as familiar/safe or unfamiliar/possibly dangerous -we like familiar people -negative side  nervousness of things that aren’t familiar -familiarity doesn’t usually breed contempt but rather increase liking -exposure without awareness leads to liking -we like ourselves more when we are the way we’re used to seeing ourselves -ex: women were photographed and shown the actual picture as well as the mirror image of the photo -these women preferred the mirror image – image they were used to seeing -when close friends of the subject were asked which picture they preferred, they chose the true photo – image the friends were used to seeing Physical attractiveness -the matching phenomenon -people usually pair off with people who are about the same level of attractiveness -matching phenomenon: tendency for individuals to select as partners those who are a “good match” in attractiveness and other traits such as intelligence -each partner has assets which the value of the respective assets creates an equitable match -ex: old rich husband, young attractive wife -the physical-attractiveness stereotype -physical-attractiveness stereotype: presumption that physically attractive people possess other socially desirable traits – beautiful = good -first impressions -first impressions form very quickly and influence our thinking -attractiveness is perceived promptly and primes positive processing -is the “beautiful is good” stereotype accurate? -some truth – attractive children and adults somewhat more relaxed, outgoing, popular and socially polished -these differences are probably due to self-fulfilling prophecies – attractive people valued and favoured and therefore may develop more social self-confidence -who is attractive? -attractiveness is whatever the people of any given place and time find attractive -cultures with few resources or poor, hungry people – plumpness is attractive -cultures with plenty of food and resources – slimness is desirable -symmetry is very attractive -evolution and attraction -beauty identifies biologically important information such as health, youth and fertility -men who preferred fertile-looking women out-reproduced those who liked older women -women favour male traits that represent an ability to provide and protect resources -men most attracted to women with waists 30% narrower than hips  peak sexual fertility -malnutrition, pregnancy, menopause which reduce fertility cause her shape to change -women rate muscular men as sexier  muscular ancestors more likely to gather food, build houses and defeat rivals/enemies -social comparisons -after viewing a very attractive person of the same sex, people rate themselves as being less attractive than after seeing a picture of an ugly person -the attractiveness of those we love -the more in love people are, the less attractive they find all others of the opposite sex -appears that individuals regulate how attractive they find others in a way that maintains their close relationships Similarity versus complementarity -do birds of a feather flock together? -friends, engaged couples and spouses more likely to share common attitudes, beliefs and values compared to people who are randomly paired -the greater the similarity between a husband and wife, the happier they are -likeness begets liking -the more similar someone’s attitudes are similar to your own, more likeable you will find that person -likeness produces liking -dissimilarity breeds dislike -we all have a bias assuming that others share our attitudes...however we begin to dislike them even more once we discover that their attitudes differ from ours...even more if those different attitudes have to do with our strong moral convictions -attitude alignment – helps promote and sustain close relationships and lead to an overestimation of similarities -do opposites attract? -ex: depressed people will find someone with a bubbly personality annoying...similarly average-looking people will feel homely in the company of a very attractive person  leads to choosing a mate that is similar -complementary: the supposed tendency, in a relationship between 2 people, for each to complete what is missing in the other Liking those who like us -negative information carries more weight because it is less usual and grabs more attention -attribution -ingratiation: the use of strategies such as flattery, by which people seek to gain another’s favour -if they complement us on something we know isn’t true then we think to ourselves “is there an ulterior motive behind their complements?” -if no apparent motive then we like the person -self-esteem and attraction -those whose self-esteem had been temporarily shattered are presumably hungry for social approval -experiment by Hatfield: give some women favourable personality analyses and some unfavourable then asked them to evaluate several people (one of which was a very attractive male who, before the experiment, had a
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