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Chapitre 3.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Dax Urbszat

age 77 LEARNING OBJECTIVES Discuss how we perceive our social worlds LO1Define primingDescribe how we perceive and interpret eventsDescribe belief perseveranceDiscuss how we construct memories of ourselves and our world Discuss how we judge our social worlds LO2Discuss intuitive judgmentsDescribe overconfidenceDescribe heuristics mental shortcutsDescribe counterfactual thinkingDescribe illusory thinkingDiscuss the influence of mood on judgment Discuss how we explain our social worlds LO3Describe how we attribute causality to the person or the situationDefine the fundamental attribution errorDiscuss why we make the attribution errorDescribe cultural differences in attributionDiscuss why we study attribution errors Discuss our expectations of our social worlds LO4Describe the influence of teacher expectations on student performanceDiscuss how we often get from others what we expectConclusions In June 2010 Canada hosted a G20 summit of world financial leaders To prepare for the summit being held at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre an Integrated Security Unit was formed of police officers and Canadian military personnel Large segments of downtown Toronto were cordoned off to secure the summit and protect delegates from harm Then just prior to the summit a bank in Ottawa was firebombed by a group of anarchists who threatened to be in Toronto to violently oppose the meeting Page 78 As the summit began many activist groups gathered in downtown Toronto to protest issues such as poverty indigenous rights and capitalism and globalization A few downtown streets were closed off to accommodate the growing number of protestors Most of the protests were peaceful Some individuals however began using black bloc tactics they dressed entirely in black concealed their faces and vandalized local businesses broke windows and set police cruisers on fire In response over the course of the weekend the Toronto police as part of the Integrated Security Unit arrested over 900 people Many were detained for hours without any charges including hundreds of citizens who without warning were corralled and held in the pouring rain at the corner of Spadina Avenue and Queen Street Cold wet and hungry without access to bathrooms most were ultimately released without questioning To what should we attribute the polices actions Should protestors and onlookers have expected such treatment by getting so close to the summit with tensions running high Were the police simply reacting as best they could to control a complex and perilous situation Or did they unjustifiably abuse their power ignoring citizens rights and treating everyone like black bloc hooligans These differing reactions illustrate the extent to which we construct social perceptions and beliefsWe perceive and recall events through the filters of our own assumptionsWe judge events informed by our intuition by implicit rules that guide our snap judgments and by our moodsWe explain events by sometimes attributing them to the situation sometimes to the personWe expect certain events and our expectation sometimes helps bring them about This chapter explores how we perceive judge and explain our social worlds and howand to what extentour expectations matter PERCEIVING OUR SOCIAL WORLDS Striking research reveals the extent to which our assumptions and prejudgments can bias our perceptions interpretations and recall Chapter 1 noted a significant fact about the human mind that our preconceptions guide how we perceive and interpret information We construe the world through belieftinted glasses Sure preconceptions matter people will agree yet they fail to realize how great the effect is Lets consider some provocative experiments The first group of experiments examines how predispositions and prejudgments affect how we perceive and interpret information The second group of experiments plants a judgment in peoples minds after they have been given information to study how afterthefact ideas bias recall The overarching point We respond not to reality as it is but to reality as we construe it Page 79 PRIMING Unattended stimuli can subtly influence how we interpret and recall events Imagine yourself during an experiment wearing earphones and concentrating on ambiguous spoken sentences such as We stood by the bank When a pertinent word river or money is simultaneously sent to your other ear you dont consciously hear it Yet the word primes your interpretation of the sentence BaarsMcGovern 1994 Our memory system is a web of associations andpriming is the awakening or activating of certain associations Priming experiments reveal how one thought even without awareness can influence another thought or even an action John Bargh and his colleagues 1996 asked people to complete sentences containing words such as old wise and retired Shortly after they observed these people walking more slowly to the elevator than did those not primed with agingrelated words Moreover the slow walkers had no awareness of their walking speed or of having just viewed words that primed aging Often our thinking and acting are primed by events of which we are unaware In another experiment Rob Holland and his colleagues 2005
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