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Chapter 12

PSY220 Textbook Notes Chapter 12-Groups.docx

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Emily Impett

Chapter 12: Groups Social Facilitation - initially a term used when performance is enhanced due to the presence of others; now the broader term for the effect - positive and negative - of the presence of others on performance Evaluation Apprehension - people’s concern about how they might be evaluated in the eyes of others - that is , about being evaluated Distraction-Conflict Theory - theory based on the idea that being aware of another persons persons creates a conflict btwn attending to that person and the task at hand, and this additional conflict is arousing and produces social facilitation effects Social Loafing - tendency to exert less effort when working on a group task in which individual contributions cannot be monitored Groupthink - faulty thinking by tightly bonded groups in which the critical scrutiny that should be focuses on the issues at hand is distracted by the social pressure to reach consensus Self-Censorship - tendency to withhold info/opinions in group discussions Risky Shift - tendency for groups to make riskier decisions than individuals would Group Polarization - tendency for group decisions to be more extreme than those made by individuals. Whatever way the majority of individuals are leaning towards, the group discussion will make them lean more in that direction Power - ability to our own outcome and that of others; the freedom to act Status - outcome of an evaluation of attributes that produces differences in respect and prominence, which in turn determines an individuals power within a group Authority - Power that derives from institutional roles or arrangements Dominance - Behaviour linked with the goal of acquiring or demonstrating power Approach/ Inhibition Theory - high powered ppl are more inclined to go after there goals and make quick judgements, as opposed to people with less power, who are more likely to think carefully about their decisions and constrain it Deindividuation - reduced sense of individual identity accompanies by diminished self- regulation that comes over people when they are in a large group Individuation - enhanced sense of individual identity produced by focusing attention on the self, which generally leads people to act carefully and deliberately in accordance with their propriety and rules Self-awareness theory - theory that maintains that when people focus their attention inwards on themselves, they become conceded with self evaluation and how their current behaviour conforms to their internal standards and values Spotlight Effect - People conviction that other people are attending to them - to their appearance and behaviour - more than they actually are The Nature and Purpose of group Living Group - a collection of individuals whos have relations to one another that make them interdependent to some significant degree - Eg. A group of ppl in an elevator would not be considered a group but if they were stuck in the elevator and needed to figure out how to escape then the are now considered a group PROS: - fulfils psychological need to belong - For our ancestors: - Protections from predators - Efficiency in acquisition of food - Assistance in child rearing - Defence against human aggressors CONS: - intergroup competition and status differentials emerge - dominant and dominated groups emerge (Race/ socio-economic) - Intergroup Bias (Stereotyping/prejudice/discrimination) Social Facilitation Study: Children Reeling fishing Lines - Children were asked to reel fishing lines as fast as possible; Half of them were alone, half of them were in the presence of another child - Results: children tended to reel faster in the presence of others Dominant Response - the most likely response you will make - if dominant response is correct, arousal will enhance performance - if dominant response is incorrect, then arousal will undermine performance Zojonc’s Theory When you are doing a simple task, with the presence of others, will enhance your performance When you are doing a complex task, with the presence of others, will hider your performance Study: Cockroach - Cockroaches would go though two mazes: Simple Maze: only needed to run away from the light towards the goal (dominant response) Complex Maze: the cockroach needs to make a turn to reach goal, if follow the dominant response will not reach goal - First time, the cockroach would be doing both the simple and complex maze without the presen of other cockroaches. The second phase, the cockroach would have a partner with it for the simple maze, and as for the complex maze, the cockroach would have other cockroaches watching it. - Results: Social facilitation effects can be see
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