Textbook Notes (362,882)
Canada (158,081)
Psychology (1,851)
PSY220H5 (98)
Chapter 3

PSY220 chapter 3 textbook notes

4 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Mississauga
Dax Urbszat

CHAPTER 3 -we perceive/recall events through our own assumptions -we judge events, informed by our intuition, by implicit rules that guide our snap person -we explain events by either attributing it to either the situation or to the person -we expect certain events and our expectation occasionally helps bring them about PERCEIVIG OUR SOCIAL WORLDS -we respond not to reality as it is but to reality as we construe it Priming -activating particular associations in memory -unattended stimuli can subtly influence how we interpret and recall events -ex: watching scary movie can prime our thinking by activating emotions that cause us to think that furnace noises are a possible intruder -ex: flashing the word “bread” on the screen (without realizing it) may prime participants to detect related words (ex: butter) faster than unrelated words -much of our social information processing is automatic and happens without conscious awareness Perceiving and interpreting events -social perception in the eye of the beholder -ex: showing participants a picture of a man with neutral expression and telling them he was a Nazi  cruel -telling them he saved thousands of Jewish lives  warm and kind -spontaneous trait transference: when we say something good/bad about someone else, people will tend to associate that trait with us -we view objective reality through our beliefs, attitudes and values  shape our interpretation of everything else Belief perseverance -persistence of your initial conceptions, as when the basis for your belief is discredited but an explanation of why the belief might be true survives -the more we examine our theories and explain how they might be true, the more closed we become to information that challenges our belief -cost: we become prisoners of our own thought patterns -explain the opposite or why the opposite theory may be true and this may reduce or eliminate belief perseverance Constructing memories of ourselves and our worlds -we reconstruct our distant past by using our current feelings and expectations to combine fragments of information and may revise our memories to suit our current knowledge -misinformation effect: incorporating “misinformation” into one’s memory of the even after witnessing an event and then receiving misleading information about it -ex: Loftus experiment yield vs stop sign -reconstructing past attitudes -rosy retrospection: recall mildly pleasant events more favourably than they experienced them -Cathy McFarland and Michael Ross found we revise our recollections of other people as our relationship with them change -ex: dating  recalled love at first sight Break up  partner selfish -reconstructing past behaviour -hindsight bias involves memory revision -revise past to suit our present views -under-report bad behaviour, over-report good behaviour JUDGING OUR SOCIAL WORLDS Intuitive judgments -the powers of intuition -controlled processing: “explicit” thinking that’s intentional, reflective and conscious -automatic processing: “implicit” thinking that is effortless, habitual and without awareness; roughly corresponds to intuition -our thinking is partly controlled, partly automatic -examples of automatic thinking: -schemas -emotional reactions -expertise -blindsight: losing a portion of the visual cortex which may result in being blind in part of their visual field participants shown sticks in their blind field and reported seeing nothing…however if asked to guess whether the sticks were vertical or horizontal they got them all right -subliminal stimuli ex: Catholic women read sexually explicit passage and then subliminally flashed either a picture of frowning pope, frowning stranger or blank screen  those who were flashed the pope felt worse about themselves and rated themselves more negatively Overconfidence -overconfidence phenomenon – tendency to be more confident than correct – to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs -incompetence feeds overconfidence -people may give too much weight to their current intentions when predicting their future behaviour -experience may not lead us to a more realistic self-appraisal because people tend to remember their mistaken judgments as times when they were almost right -overconfidence hard to get rid of -confirmation bias -confirmation bias: tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions  less inclined to seek evidence that will disconfirm our predictions -remedies for overconfidence -prompt feedback -to decrease “planning fallacy” overconfidence, people asked to break down task into subcomponents and estimate time required for each -get people to think of one good reason why their judgments might be wrong -forces them to consider disconfirming information -realistic self-confidence is adaptive Heuristics: mental shortcuts -heuristic: thinking strategy that enables quick, efficient judgments -representativeness heuristic: tendency to presume something despite contrary odds, that someone or something belongs to a particular group if resembling (representing) a typical member -ex: given a description of what seems like a feminist, people will assume that “Linda” is more likely to be a bank teller and a feminist rather than just a bank teller alone…however in reality there are many more bank tellers than feminist bank tellers -availability heuristic -availability heuristic: cognitive rule that judges the likelihood of things in terms of their availability in memory…we assume something occurs more often if those instances come readily to mind -ex: people think plane crashes occur more often than they actually do  people fear flying more than driving because plane crashes are readily available on the news Counterfactual thinking -counterfactual thinking: imagining alternative scenarios and outcomes that might have happened but didn’t -the more significant the event, the more intense the counterfactual thinking -in both Asian and western cultures, most people regret things they failed to do more than things already done Illusory thinking -illusory correlation -illusory correlation: perception of a relationship where none exists, or perception of a stronger relationship than actually exists -more likely to notice confirming instances if we believe a correlation exists…rarely notice the times unusual events don’
More Less

Related notes for PSY220H5

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.