Lec18-motives and values.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Ulrich Schimmack

Motives and Values Definition of motives and values  Motives and values and related notions (i.e. goals, desires) share basic assumption that behavoiur is often caused by desired outcome or ideal state  People often behave in certain way to close the gap between current and desired state  Goals are the most immediate cause of behaviour (psychological causes of behavoiur); goals are assumed to be consciously accessible (motives not so clear)  Goals are concrete and specific whereas motives are more abstract; motives explain why people have specific goals  Goals and motives are related but relationship can be weak because the same goal can be related to different motives Assessment of Motives  Two types of measures to study individual differences in motives- explicit measures that use rating scales and implicit measures that use projective tests Ultimate Motives  Do all motives/goals serve one major purpose? Difficult to prove existence of ultimate motive and possible to find examples in which people prefer different motives (vary in importance) Universal motives (values)  10 list of motives by Schwartz called values (abstract guiding principles of behaviour)  self-enhancement (power/achievement), contrasts self-transcendence (universalism/benevolence). Openness to change (hedonism, self-direction) contrasts conservatism (conformity, tradition) Motives and traits  Personality psychologists try to explain behaviour by factors ‘within’ individuals  People with different motives behave differently in the same situation  Openness to experiences positively related to value dimension openness to ch
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