Client-centred therapy (p. 450)
A type of therapy developed by Carl Rogers as an alternative to psychoanalysis, based on his
belief that psychological problems arose when personal growth was stunted by judgments imposed by
Clinical practice guidelines (p. 464)
Guidelines based on the best available empirical evidence that translate the knowledge gained
from research into concrete guidelines intended to inform clinical practice.
Cognitive restructuring (p. 453)
A technique used by cognitive-behavioural therapists to encourage clients to become aware of,
and to question, their assumptions, expectations, attributions, and automatic thoughts.
Effect size (p. 457)
A common metric used to summarize the meaning of diverse studies in a meta-analysis. It is
calculated as the difference between the means of the experimental (that is, the treatment) group and
the control group, divided by the standard deviation of either the control group or the pooled sample of
Ego analysts (p. 450)
Psychoanalytically oriented therapists who use Freudian techniques to explore the ego rather
than the id, and try to help clients understand how they have relied on defence mechanisms to cope
Emotionally focused couples therapy (p. 454)
An experiential approach to couples therapy that aims to modify constricted interaction
patterns and emotional responses by fostering the development of a secure emotional bond.
Emotion-focused therapy (p. 451)
A short-term psychotherapy approach that purports that emotions themselves are inherently
adaptive and can help clients to change problematic emotional states or unwanted self-experiences.
Empirically supported therapy (p. 462)
Psychotherapeutic intervention that has been demonstrated empirically to be effective.
Empirically supported therapy relationships (p. 463)
A task force of the APA Division of Psychotherapy reviewed the research literature to identify
elements of effective therapy relationships and determine methods of tailoring therapy to individual
Evidence-based practice (p. 462)
Health care based on established scientific findings rather than practitioners’ assumptions. Exposure therapy (p. 452)
Any therapeutic procedure that repeatedly confronts the person with a stimulus that typically
elicits an undesirable behaviour or an unwanted emotional response until the behaviour or response no
Extrapyramidal effects (p. 445)
Severe side effects of the major tranquilizers.
Interpersonal psychodynamic psychotherapy (p. 450)