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Abnormal Psychology Ch17/Ch15.pdf

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Hywel Morgan

Abnormal Psychology: Final Review Notes▯ ▯ Chapter 17▯ ▯ Biological Treatments:▯ - There are 2 current methods of biological treatments: electro convulsive therapy (ECT) and the most common psychopharmacology ▯ • ECT▯ - Use to be used for schizophrenia (provoke a seizure by the application of an electrical current to the patients temples)▯ - Now it’s commonly used for severe life threatening depression, not schizophrenia (as a last resort if not responding to any other methods of treatment) > side effect is retrograde amnesia ▯ • Psychopharmacology ▯ - Pharmacological agents that affect the individuals psychological functioning are knows as “psychoactive agents” ▯ - Drugs are classified according to their application of treating different disorders ▯ - Antipsychotics: usually used as a treatment for schizophrenia, does not cure but controls the symptoms, some patients experience “extrapyramidal effects” - similar to Parkinson’s disease▯ - Antidepressants: 4 major categories - MAOIs, TCAs, SSRIs, SNRIs, Canadian guidelines for the pharmacotherapy of depression recommend SSRIs and SNRIs as first-line medication▯ - Anxiolytics (anti-anxiety): used to alleviate symptoms of anxiety and muscle tension by reducing activity in parts of the central nervous system, i.e barbiturates (highly toxic, develop tolerance), benzodiazepines (without toxicity at high doses, addictive) - both are dangerous if taken in combination with alcohol ▯ - Psycho-stimulants: commonly used for children and adults with ADHD ▯ ▯ Psychotherapy:▯ • Psychodynamic approach▯ - Freud: psychological problems have their roots in very early childhood and in unconscious conflicts > main goal is the help patients understand the unconscious factors that drive and control their behaviours ▯ ▯ 1. Free association ▯ ▯ 2. Dream interpretation ▯ ▯ 3. Interpretation ▯ ▯ 4. Analysis of resistance ▯ ▯ 5. Analysis of transference: occurs when the client responds to the therapist as he or she ▯ responded to significant figures from his or her childhood ▯ Examples of Psychodynamic Therapies▯ - Brief psychodynamic psychotherapy: developed by Alexander and French - tends to be short term, active and flexible▯ - Ego analysis: Karen Horney, Erik Erikson, Anna Freud - individuals are capable of controlling their own behaviours (explore ego rather than id) ▯ - Adler’s individual psychology: Alfred Adler - sexual and aggressive instincts are less important than the individuals striving to overcome personal weakness ▯ - Time-limited dynamic psychotherapy (TLDP): invoke the client in face-to-face contact with the therapist, retains analysis of transference as a central mechanism of therapeutic change▯ ▯ ▯ • Humanistic-Experiential Approaches ▯ - Focus on the person’s subjective experience, giving particular attention to emotional aspects of experience, emphasis on current rather than on the past ▯ Examples of Humanistic-Experiential Therapies▯ - Client-Centred: Carl Rogers - emphasizes the warmth and permissiveness of the therapist and the tolerant climate in which the feelings of the client can be freely expressed, therapist qualities (genuine, empathy, “unconditional positive regard”) ▯ - Existential: Sartre and Kierkegaard - ultimate goal of making the client more aware of this or her own potential for growth and capacity for making choices ▯ - Gestalt: Fritz Perls - help clients become more aware of feelings and needs that have been ignored or distorted and recognize that these needs are part of themselves and should accept them, pretend the therapist is the problem they need to face▯ - Emotion-focused: Les Greenberg - client enters into an empathic relationship with a therapist who is directive and responsive to his or her experience ▯ • Cognitive-Behavioural Approaches▯ - Behaviour therapy: learned problem behaviours, faulty behaviours can be revers
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