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Christine Burton

PSY270Cognitive Psychology Textbook notes for final Exam CHAPTER 1Introduction to CogTERMSCognitive Psychologythe branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of the mind Cognition the mental processes such as perception attention memory and so on that are what the mind does Reaction Time How long it takes to respond to presentation of a stimulus Structuralism our overall experience is determined by combining basic elements of experience called sensations Analytic Introspectiona technique in which trained participants described their experiences and thought processes in response to stimuli Classical Conditioning pairing one stimulus with another previously neutral stimulus causes changes in the response to the neutral stimulus Operant Conditioning Behavior is strengthened by the presentation of positive reinforcers or withdrawal of negative reinforcersCognitive Map a conception of a mazes layout InformationProcessing Approach an approach that traces the sequence of mental operations involved in cognitionArtificial Intelligence Approach making a machine behave in ways that would be called intelligent if a human were so behavingMemory Consolidation information in a fragile state becomes strengthened and transforms into a strong memory that is more resistant to interferenceNOTESCognitive Psychology Studying the Mind What is the Mind The mind is involved in memory The mind is a problem solverThe mind is used to make decisions or consider possibilities A healthy mind is associated with normal functioning and a nonfunctioning mind with abnormal functioning The mind is valuable The mind creates and controls mental functions such as perception attention memory emotion language deciding thinking and reasoning The mind is a system that creates representations of the world so that we can act within it to achieve our goals Studying the Mind Early Work in Cognitive Psychology Donders Pioneering Experiment How long does it take to make a decisionFirst experiment to be considered cognitive psychology dont before the first lab opened was by Dutch physiologist Franciscus Donders Determined how long it took to make a decision by reaction timeFirst part was to pusha button when they say a light appear simple reaction time testSecond part was to push one of two buttons depending on if the light was on the right or left choice reaction time testPresenting the stimulus causes a mental response which leads to a behavioral response The choice reaction time would be longer than simple reaction time because of the additional time it takes to make the decisionThe difference in the reaction time between the simple and choice conditions would indicate how long it took to make the decision 110 secondsStudy shows that mental responses cannot be measured directly but must be inferred from behavior Ebbinghauss Memory Experiment What is the timecourse of Forgetting Determining how information that is learned is lost Tested himself Presented nonsense syllables DAXQEH LUH at one time using a memory drum Used nonsense words so memory wouldnt be influenced by meaning of a particular word Learnt the syllables in order and then tried to remember them serial recall and noted the number of trails it took to accomplish task Had periods of delay immediate to 31 days and repeated recall test Calculated savings scoreinitial repetitionsRelearning repetitionsinitial repetitions x 100 Savings were greater for shorter delay periods His saving curve shows savings as a function of retention intervalThe curve indicates that memory drops rapidly for the first 2 days after the initial learning and then levels off Curve was important because showed that memory could be quantified And functions can be used to describe properties of the mind Wundts Psychology Laboratory Structuralism and Analytic Introspection 1879 Wilhelm Wundt founded first psychology lab at university of Leipzig in Germany Started and believed in structuralism Used analytic introspectionpeople asked if they heard 5 note piano chord as a whole or each individual note Never achieved goal of explaining behavior in terms of sensations Abandoning the Study of the Mind Watson Founds Behaviorism John WatsonPhD in psychology in 1904 University of Chicago Proposed new approach called Behaviorism Make behavior not consciousness the objective point of our attackFocus then shifted from the mind to behavior Famous experiment Little Albert Experiment A 9 month old boy albert was exposed to a rat which was paired with a loud banging noise Every time the rat came the noise was heard Until Watson stopped playing the noise and Albert reacted to the rat even without the noise As soon as the rat was seen Albert began to crawl away in fear This was a case of classical conditioning
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