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Chapter 13

PSY270 Chapter 13.doc

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Christine Burton

Chapter 13 Reasoning and Decision MakingDecisions making choices between alternativesReasoning process of drawing conclusionsDeductive reasoning involves sequences of statements called syllogismsInductive reasoning arrive at conclusions about what is probably true based on evidenceDeductive Reasoning Syllogisms and LogicSyllogism includes two statements premises followed by a third statement the conclusionCategorical syllogisms premises and conclusion describe the relation between two categories by using statements that begin with all no or someSyllogism 1Premise 1 All birds are animalsPremise 2 All animals eat foodConclusion Therefore all birds eat foodValidity and Truth in SyllogismsValidity a syllogism is valid when its conclusion follows logically from its two premisesSyllogism 2Premise 1 All birds are animals All A are BPremise 2 All animals have four legs All B are CConclusion All birds have four legs All A are CForm of premises and conclusion is indicated in parenthesesboth syllogisms 1 and 2 have the same formBoth syllogisms are therefore valid because conclusion forms from the two premisesValidity depends on the form of the syllogism which determines whether the conclusion follows from the two premisesTruth refers to content of the premises Which have to be evaluated to determine whether they are consistent with the factsConditional SyllogismsConditional syllogisms have two premises and a conclusion but the first premise has the form IfthenoAntecedent pif term or first termoConsequent qthen term or second termFour Syllogisms that begin with the Same First PremiseIf p then q abstract versionIf I study then Ill get a good grade concrete versionSyllogismSecond premiseConclusionIs it Judged validcorrectly
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