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PSY290H5 (64)
Chapter 1

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Ayesha Khan

Chapter 1 Notes Aristotle: Mentalism – something is controlling your behavior, must be heart Cardiac Hypothesis – mental experiences are emerging from the heart Galen: Aphysician, where the mental experience resides, refuted the Cardiac Hypothesis Instead, all these tubes inside your body are connected Started to look at the cavities in the brain (ventricles) that contained fluids All the tissue and blood flow is ending p in the brain and maybe the cavities are allowing for mental experiences Nervous system is a series of interconnected tubes Vesalius: Father of modern anatomy from the perspective of neuroscience Started to dissect the brain and draw out in detail the body and the brain Helped realize that there are these interconnections that we could view through his drawings Descartes: What controls our movement? The human is superior to all other things according to theology UsingAristotle’s idea, he said something is inside controlling our behavior Dualism – immaterial is what controls the material (body) The mind is an immaterial entity that resides in the pineal gland, which is in the brain We’ve got this non-material entity (soul), which makes us different from animals We can hold back a lot of our movements (increased, decreased, moderated) The brain needs to have a connection to everything in your body; connections are really important Mind-Body problem: physicists says that where does the mind (if it is immaterial) get energy from to change behavior, it must spontaneously create it Today, we use term mind and brain interchangeably Reflex is a stimulus response We can’t explain behavior purely from a reflexive point of view Then what would be the difference between animals and us? Darwin and Wallace: We need to think about environment, which shapes the kinds of behavior that we exhibit Started to look at commonalities and differences between animals Looked at phylogenetic trees Two important things: survival and reproduction Given the environment that I live in, what are the characteristics that I have that allow for me to reproduce and survive? (Evolutionary idea) Behavioral Characteristics: Example – most people have a fear of heights, which is adaptive Link between psychology and evolutionary biology Why do we need to know about evolutionary biology as psychology students? Behavior is encoded in genes (ex. fear of darkness, heights), but there are also mutations Mechanism – how exactly do those parts function together? What is happening within a part that allows it to function in the first pace? Galvani: Connected a wire from his rooftop to the legs of frogs and when there were electrical disturbances, there was movements in the frogs legs in unison (twitches) What governs behaviors from a mechanistic view? Electrical changes are major to understand how neurons work Cajal: Neuron Doctrine - the idea that we have a series of different cells that are independent yet working together Golgi: Came up with a staining technique When you look at the nervous system, it is one large cell Ida Hyde: Was the first woman to be elected in theAmerican Psychological Society Created the first microelectrode Microelectrode – you could go down to the cellular level, introduce electricity and see what is the result of that You can do intracellular work with animals Macro perspective Two key assumptions: 1. Different regions of the brain performed different functions 2. You could have distortions (bumps that occurs in the skull that are different between people) of the skull that are associated with personality Case studies: Can’t inflect brain damage to an individual but you can wait for it to occur on its own and then document Paul Broca: had an individual that had sustained damage to the left frontal part of his brain The damage was the tissue in that area was dead and the person had difficulty getting his words out The frontal part of the brain is associated with motor movement and when Broca’s area is damaged, you have difficulty putting words together People started to put out a strict localization view: one part of brain does just one function BUT this is not true because one part of the brain can have multiple functions Wernicke: Noticed that there was damage in the left temporal cortex When Wernicke’s area is affected, the ability to express yourself tends to deteriorate Both located in left area (associated with language) Temporal cortex: getting words together Frontal Lobe: moving your mouth in a way that there is fluid so you can get the words out Sounds sensations enter brain through auditory pathway Sound representations are stored in Wernicke’s area Broca’s aphasia = words coming out very slow (can kind of understand what is being said from certain words); meaning is coming across but limited words Wernicke’s aphasia = words are coming out continuously but they don’t make any sense; organization of words are disrupted Alexia: Adisconnection between the visual areas of the brain (occipital cortex) and Wernicke’s area Person loses ability to read Temporal cortex is not just auditory, but also has to do with organization Apraxia: Disconnection between motor areas (frontal cortex) and sensory areas of the brain (parietal cortex) Coordination starts to gets disrupted (ex. brushing your teeth) Brain Hypothesis: The brain and in particular, nervous system, is the source of behavior Neuron Hypothesis: More of a mechanistic viewpoint, neurons found in brain allow for that activity to occur Cortex – outer part, not specific to neuropsychology Cerebral cortex – outer portion of the brain The word brain is very general As you open up the skull, you see a wrinkly tissue called the cortex Sub-cortical – not available to naked eye, underneath top layer Cracks are sulci, bumps are gyri Lobes are just the top portion of the brain that can be seen by the naked eye There are other structure present inside the brain that we can’t see with the naked eye Nervous system is everywhere Nervous system is unique because it exists all over the body and the unit of structure (neuron) is a special kind of cell Neurons don’t just exist in the brain Central nervous system: Consists of the brain and the spinal cord Somatic Nervous System: Cranial nerves – head Spinal nerves Autonomic Nervous System: Sympathetic – involved in fight of flight responses, gets you out of a dangerous situation very quickly (milliseconds), affects your heart rate and breathing rate, have an impact on diameter of your pupils (to get more light in) Parasympathetic – resting and digesting system, takes longer to kick in (minutes to hours) Example: watching a game Winning team – spectators’testosterone levels go up Losing team – spectators’testosterone
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