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Psychology (1,899)
PSY310H5 (25)
Chapter 1

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Virginia K Walker

Adolescence- Introduction • Adolescence is the time of moving from the immaturity of childhood into the maturity if adulthood preparing for future. It is the period of transition: biological, psychological, social, and economic. It is the second decade of the life span. • Adolescence period has lengthened because physical maturation occurs earlier and because many individuals delay entering into work and marriage until their mid 20’s. • This period begins around age 10- and ends in early 20. Determining the beginning and ending of this period is a matter more of opinion rather than an absolute fact. IT HAS DIFFERENT BOUNDARIES DEPENDING ON HOW ONE CHOOSES TO DEFINE THE PERIOD • Early adolescence - ages 10-13 • Middle adolescence- ages 14-17 • Late adolescence- ages 18-21 • Emerging adulthood- youth-hood is mid 20’s  there are different pathways where some may be labeled as emerging adults who are dependent on their parents, and bouncing from job to job whereas others may go straight into marriage from adolescence and economically independent. Framework for studying Adolescence development • Frameworks is organized around 3 basic components: o Fundamental changes of adolescence that is universal in which it occurs to all adolescence.  Biological change onset of puberty which may threaten adolescence by sudden changes in physical appearance and change families because of the greater need for privacy in which girls may feel uncomfortable with their father.  Cognitive changeemergence of more advanced thinking abilities such as memory and problem solving and hypothetical situations and abstract concepts. This ability affects the way adolescence’s think about themselves, relationships and the world around them. For example, they plan ahead, argue with parents, solve algebraic equations, and resolve moral dilemmas.  Social changetransition into new roles in society. Society distinguishes between minor or underage and people who reach the age of majority. It is during adolescence that one has the right to drive, vote, and marry. • Rite of passage: a ceremony of ritual that marks an individual’s transition from one social status to another, marking the transition to adulthood. o Contexts of adolescence / the effects of the 3 fundamental changes are not universal because one may feel attractive after puberty whereas another may feel ugly and self-conscious.  The effects are different for different individuals because it is shaped by their environment in which the changes take place.  Ecological perspective on human development: A perspective that emphasizes the context in which development occurs. According to this view, we cannot understand development without examining the settings, or context in which it occurs. • There are four main immediate or proximal contexts of adolescence development: families, peer groups (most important), schools and work and leisure settings. • What takes place in these immediate settings is influenced by the broader context in which they are contained, including community, culture, and historical era in which people grew up.  The ecology of adolescence development can be thought of having four levels: • Micro-system: immediate settings in which adolescence develop such as family or peer group. • Meso-system: layer of the environment formed by two or more immediate settings as the home- school linkage. • Exo-system: the layer of the environment that does not directly contain the adolescence but that affects the setting in which the person lives such as the parent’s workplace. • Macro-system: outermost layer of the environment containing forces such as history and culture such as the country and era in which an individual lives
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