• Adolescence is the time of moving from the immaturity of childhood
into the maturity if adulthood preparing for future. It is the period of
transition: biological, psychological, social, and economic. It is the
second decade of the life span.
• Adolescence period has lengthened because physical maturation
occurs earlier and because many individuals delay entering into work
and marriage until their mid 20’s.
• This period begins around age 10- and ends in early 20. Determining
the beginning and ending of this period is a matter more of opinion
rather than an absolute fact. IT HAS DIFFERENT BOUNDARIES
DEPENDING ON HOW ONE CHOOSES TO DEFINE THE
• Early adolescence - ages 10-13
• Middle adolescence- ages 14-17
• Late adolescence- ages 18-21
• Emerging adulthood- youth-hood is mid 20’s there are different
pathways where some may be labeled as emerging adults who are
dependent on their parents, and bouncing from job to job whereas
others may go straight into marriage from adolescence and
Framework for studying Adolescence development
• Frameworks is organized around 3 basic components:
o Fundamental changes of adolescence that is universal in which
it occurs to all adolescence.
Biological change onset of puberty which may threaten
adolescence by sudden changes in physical appearance
and change families because of the greater need for
privacy in which girls may feel uncomfortable with their
Cognitive changeemergence of more advanced
thinking abilities such as memory and problem solving
and hypothetical situations and abstract concepts. This
ability affects the way adolescence’s think about
themselves, relationships and the world around them. For
example, they plan ahead, argue with parents, solve algebraic equations, and resolve moral dilemmas.
Social changetransition into new roles in society.
Society distinguishes between minor or underage and
people who reach the age of majority. It is during
adolescence that one has the right to drive, vote, and
• Rite of passage: a ceremony of ritual that marks
an individual’s transition from one social status to
another, marking the transition to adulthood.
o Contexts of adolescence / the effects of the 3 fundamental
changes are not universal because one may feel attractive after
puberty whereas another may feel ugly and self-conscious.
The effects are different for different individuals because
it is shaped by their environment in which the changes
Ecological perspective on human development: A
perspective that emphasizes the context in which
development occurs. According to this view, we cannot
understand development without examining the settings,
or context in which it occurs.
• There are four main immediate or proximal
contexts of adolescence development: families,
peer groups (most important), schools and work
and leisure settings.
• What takes place in these immediate settings is
influenced by the broader context in which they
are contained, including community, culture, and
historical era in which people grew up.
The ecology of adolescence development can be thought
of having four levels:
• Micro-system: immediate settings in which
adolescence develop such as family or peer group.
• Meso-system: layer of the environment formed by
two or more immediate settings as the home-
• Exo-system: the layer of the environment that does
not directly contain the adolescence but that affects the setting in which the person lives such as the
• Macro-system: outermost layer of the environment
containing forces such as history and culture such
as the country and era in which an individual lives