Textbook Notes (362,810)
Canada (158,054)
Psychology (1,851)
PSY311H5 (58)

Ch 2.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Mississauga
Stuart Kamenetsky

Ch. 2n Research Method: Tools for Discovery Getting started: Formulating Hypotheses, Asking Questions -operationalization: defining a concept so that it is observable and measurable -construct: an idea or concept, especially a complex one -following the scientific method, social development, researchers sue reliable and replicable techniques to collect and analyze data to answer their questions or test their theory-based hypotheses Research Methods: Correlations and Experiments Correlational Method -the correlational method involved computing associations between pairs of variables, varying from -1.0 to 1.0. Correlated variables are related to each other, but one does not necessarily cause the other Laboratory experiments -a laboratory experiment permits a researcher to establish a causal association by manipulating the independent variable and assessing the effect on the dependent variable in a controlled setting. Researchers randomly assign participants to experimental and control groups -independent variable: the factor that researchers deliberately manipulate in an experiment -dependent variable: the factor that researchers expect change as a function of change in the ind. Variable -ecological validity: the degree to which a research study accurately represents events or processes that occur in the real world -laboratory analogue experiment: researchers try to duplicate in the laboratory features or events that occur naturally in everyday life in order to increase the ecological validity of the results Field Experiments, Interventions, and Natural Experiments -another way to increase ecological validity is to conduct a field experiment, deliberately producing a change in a real-life setting and measuring the outcome -in a natural experiment, the investigator measures the effect of a naturally occurring change. Interpreting the results is often difficult because the researcher lacks control over the ind. Variable and other factors that could affect behaviour -observer bias: an observer’s tendency to be influenced by knowledge about the research design or hypothesis -intervention: a program provided to improve a situation or relive psychological illness or distress Combining different methods -lab and field designs can be combined to permit the introduction of the ind. Variable in the field and measurement of the dep. Variable in the lab, or the ind. Variable can be introduced in the lab and dep. Outcome is measured in the field Case Study Approach -The case study method takes an in-depth look at a single child or a small group of children who often have some uncommon feature that makes them of special interest Studying Change Over Time -in the cross-sectional method, researchers compare groups of children of different ages. -this approach is economical -BUT it yields no information about change or causes of change -the longitudinal method overcomes these two drawbacks because the researcher examines the sm children at different times in their lives -disadvantages are high cost, loss of subjects, untested age cohort effects, and limited flexibility to incorporate new measures -the sequential method combines features of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies and enables researchers to compare groups of children of different ages, track individuals from different ethnic or social class groups are represented in the same proportions as they exist in the population Selecting a Sample -representative sample: a research sample in which participants are drawn from strata or categories (ex. Social classes or ethnic groups) in the same proportions as they are found in the larger population -samples should be representative. -stratified sampling can be sued to ensure that subgroups of boys and girls or individuals from different ethnic or social class groups are represented in the same proportions as they exist in the population (ex. National Survey Approach) -meta-analysis: a statistical technique that allows the researcher to summarize the results of many studies on a particular topic and to draw conclusions about the size and replicability of observed differences or associations -effect size: an estimate of the magnitude of the difference between groups or the strength of the association between factors, averaged across studies, in a meta-analysis -select samples from different cultures is effective for studying development cross-culturally Gathering Data Self and informant reports -self-reports provide information about children’s thoughts, attitudes, and feelings. In the experience sampling method, a “beeper” signals children to record their activities, thoughts, and emotions at random times. -self-reports are trustworthy -experience sampling method (ESM): a data collection strategy by which participants are signalled at random times throughout the day and record answers to researchers questions. -the accuracy of reports from parents, siblings, teachers, or peers can improved b focusing on rece
More Less

Related notes for PSY311H5

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.