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ch 3.docx

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Stuart Kamenetsky

Chapter 3: Biological foundations: genes, temperament, and more Biological preparedness for social interaction -infants well equipped to their social environments How are babies prepared From biological rhythms to social rhythms -one way in which babies are biologically prepared for social interaction is that their behaviour follows biological rhythms which they soon learn to control and regulate -babies and mothers interact in synchrony, we mean that the moth and infant show a predictable degree of responsiveness to each other’s signals during a brief interaction Visual preparation for social interaction -a second way in which infants are biologically prepared for social interaction is that they are attracted to visual social stimuli -they stare longest at objects that have large visible elements, movement, clear contours, and a lot of contrast faces are appealing because they have boundaries, such as hairlines and chins -babies are particularly interested in eyes -over the first year of life, infants become increasingly skilled and speedy at processing human faces. Auditory preparedness for social interaction -babies auditory system is well developed even before birth. -fetuses can distinguish sounds and rhythms. -babies especially like a voice that is high in pitch with exaggerated pitch contours -can respond to speakers emotional tone Smell, taste, and touch - all of them are used. Used to distinguish and prefer their mothers and prefer better (touch, taste, and smells) Beyond faces and voices: primed to be a social partner -by 2 to 3 months of age, infants are enjoying face-to face play with their parents. -babies can regulate conversations -though sometimes they misread cues (parents misread cues as well) -focused face-to face interactions contribute to infants growth of social skills and social expectations Why are babies prepared? -preparedness for social interaction has na evolutionary basis; it is adaptive and ensures the survival of the infant. The Neurological basis of social development -the cerebral cortex is divided into regions in which cells control specific functions, such as speech, motor abilities, and memory. The cortex and limbic system play major roles in regulation emotion and social behaviour -cerebrum: the two connected hemispheres of the brain -cerebral cortex: the covering layer of the cerebrum, which contains the cells that control specific function such as seeing, hearing, moving, and thinking (contains 90% of the brain’s cell bodies) -the limbic system plays a major role in the regulation of emotion and social behaviour. Brain Growth and development -there is an orderly sequence to brain development during infancy with both gradual continuous changes and periods of relatively rapid development. Changes are linked to advances in auditory, visual, motor, and socioemotional development -first, at 2months old the motor cortex has growth spurts, as the baby moves from mostly reflexive behaviour in the early months of life to voluntary control over movements, the motor area of the brain rapidly develops -8 months  crawling and searching -12 months  walking -in the 5- to 7 year period, development of the prefrontal cortex is associated with the development of executive processes such as attention, inhibitory control, and planning. Maturation of the cortex continues into adolescence -brain changes in adolescence are associated with social behaviour (abrupt change sin the limbic and paralimbic system) -the fact that socioemotional processing improves suddenly in early adolescence whereas impulse control develops more gradually may account for adolescents emotional liability and risk taking Hemispheric specializations -the right cerebral hemisphere controls the left side of the body and is involved in processing visual- spatial information, face recognition, and emotional expressions. The left hemisphere controls the right side of the body and is important for understanding and using language. Hemisphere specialization and lateralization are evident early in infancy and are well developed by age 3 -corpus callosum: the band of nerve fibers that connects the two hemispheres of the brain -Lateralization: the process by which each half of the brain becomes specialized for certain function- for example, the control of speech and language by the left hemisphere and of visual-spatial processing by the right Neurons and synapses -although most of the brain’s neurons are present at birth, changes take place in their size, number of connections, or synapses, and production of the surrounding, supportive glial cells. Myelination increases the speed, efficiency, and complexity of transmission between neurons -glial cell: a cell that supports, protects, and repairs neurons -myelination: the process by which glial cells encase neurons in sheaths of the fatty substance myelin -neural migration: the movement of neurons within the brain ensures that all brain areas have a sufficient number of neural connections -synaptic pruning: the brain’s disposal of the axons and dendrites of a neuron that is not often stimulated -neural migration distributes neurons throughout brain regions. The abundance of neurons related to increase in brain size, connections among neurons, and activities of key brain chemicals. Additional experience can also help reduce damage or defects in one area or hemisphere of the brain Brain development and experience -two types of processes influence the development of a child’s brain. Experience-expectant processes are universal, that is shared by all human beings across evolution. Experience dependent processes are related to experiences in a particular family or culture -experience-expectant processes: brain processes that are universal, experienced by all human beings across evolution -experience-dependent processes: brain processes that are unique to the individual and responsive to par
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