Textbook Notes (363,472)
Canada (158,372)
Psychology (1,867)
PSY311H5 (58)

Ch 4.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Mississauga
Stuart Kamenetsky

Ch. 4 Attachment: Learning to Love -the development of attachment relationships is a major achievement in the infants early social life. -by the end of the first year or so, they develop a loving attachment to one or two of the special people who are regular participants in their lives (parents, older siblings, maybe grandparents) -visible signs of attachment can be seen (ex smiling broadly and stretching out their arms. Making efforts to stay near these people when in unfamiliar situations) -attachment: a strong emotional bond that forms between infant and caregiver in the second half of the child’s first year Theories of Attachment Psychoanalytic theory -Freud, psychoanalytic view, the basis for the infant’s attachment to mother is oral gratification -already proven incorrect since other attachments form that don’t involve feeding or sucking Learning Theories -the mother becomes a valued attachment object because she is associated with hunger reduction -harlow’s monkeys provided evidence against this -the central point of this learning theory explanation is that attachment is not automatic; it develops over time as a result of satisfying interactions with responsive adults Cognitive Developmental Theory -before they develop an attachment, infants must be able to differentiate between mother and a stranger and must be aware that he mother continues to exist even when they cannot see her -object permanence: understanding that objects, including people, have a continuous existence apart from the baby’s own interactions with them (7 -8 months of age) -this theory helps to account for the gradual shift in the way attachment is expressed . as infants grow older, physical proximity to the attachment figure becomes less important Ethological Theory -the most complete explanation of attachment, and the one used by most attachment researchers today, was proposed by psychiatrist John Bowlby -studies of imprinting influenced -imprinting: birds and other infrahuman animals develop a preference for the person or object to which they are first exposed during a brief, critical period after birth -Bowlby suggested that attachment has its roots in a similar (though not identical) set of instinctual responses that are important for the protection and survival of the species. The infants responses of crying, smiling, vocalizing, sucking, clinging, and following elicit the care and protection that baby’s need and promote contact between infant and parent -secure base: a safety zone that the infant can retreat to for comfort and reassurance when stressed or frightened while exploring the environment -to learn about the environment the child must explore; but exploration can be tiring and even dangerous, so it desirable to have a protector nearby. -important features: -one unique value of Bowlby’s theory lay in its emphasis on the active role played by infant’s early social signalling systems, such as smiling and crying. -attachment is relationship not simply a behavior - maternal bond: feeling of attachment by a moth to her infant, perhaps influenced by early postnatal contact -controversial said that an infant’s early behaviors are programmed How attachment develops Formation and early development of attachment -the early development of attachment can be divided into 4 phases 1. preattachment (0-2 months of age) indiscriminate social responsiveness 2. Attachment in the making (2-7 months) recognition of familiar people 3. clear cut attachment (7-24 months) separation protest; wariness of strangers; intentional communication 4. goal-corrected partnership (24 months +) relationships more two sided; children understand parents’ needs What it means to be attached -most infants develop their first attachment to their mother and rely on her for comfort. Later, infants develop attachments to their fathers and possibly with their grandparents and siblings -separation distress or protest: an infant’s distress reaction to being separated from the attachment object, usually the mother, which typically peaks at about 15 months of age -as children mature, they develop new attachment relationships with peers and romantic partners. Adolescent attachment relationships coexist with the attachments already formed to parents and siblings The nature and quality of attachment -secure attachment: babies are able to explore novel environments, are minimally disturbed by brief separations from their mother, and are quickly comforted by her when she returns Different types of attachment relationships -stranger situation: a research scenario in which parent and child are separated so that the investigator can assess the nature of the parent-infant attachment relationship pg 118 Ainsworth’s -secure attachment: babies are able to explore novel environments, are minimally disturbed by brief separations from their mother, and are quickly comforted by her when she returns (type B) -insecure-avoidant attachment: babies seem not to be bothered by their mother’s brief absences but specifically avoid her when she returns, sometimes becoming visibly upset (type A) -insecure-ambivalent attachment: babies tend to become very upset at the departure of their mother and exhibit inconsistent behavior on the mothers return, sometimes seeking contact, sometimes pushing their mothers away (type C) Beyond Ainsworth -one method involves coding children’s behavior along specific scales rather than classifying children into attachment types -exs. Proximity and contact seeking, contact maintenance, avoidance, and resistance -2 dimensions: 1. proximity-seeking vs avoidance 2. Anger and resistance -insecure-disorganized attachment: babies seem disorganized and disoriented when reunited with their mother after separation -typically 60 to 65 percent of infants are classified as securely attached to their mothers in the Strange Situation: They seek contact with her after the stress of her departure and are quickly comforted even if they were initially quite upset -securely attached infants are confident in their mother’s availability and responsiveness. They use the mother as a secure base, venturing away to explore the unfamiliar environment and returning to her as a haven of safety from time to time -insecure-avoidant infants show little distress over the mothers absence in the strange situation and actively avoid her on her return. Insecure-ambivalent children may become extremely upset when the mother leaves them in the Strange Situation but are ambivalent to her when she returns; they seek contact with her and then angrily push her away -insecure-disorganized infants act disorganized and disoriented when they are reunited with their mothers in the strange situation: they are unable to cope with distress in consistent and organized way
More Less

Related notes for PSY311H5

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.