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Canada (161,878)
Psychology (1,899)
PSY311H5 (63)

Ch 9.docx

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Stuart Kamenetsky

Ch. 9 The role of the school in social development -schools have an informal agenda of teaching rules, norms and values children need to get along in society -schools important contexts for socialization Schools as social communities -chidlren develop a sense of community in their schools -children do better socially in schools in which they have a strong sense of community -does it through collective efficacy School size and organization Big school; small school -much of the school’s influence on children’s social development comes through extracurricular activities such as clubs and sports -large and small schools didn’t differ in the variety of activities -more importantly student participation was greater in smaller schools -dropout rates greater in large schools -participation in extracurricular linked with less depression, higher self-esteem, and more likely to be part of a positive peer group Age groupings in school -creation of middle school has not served kids well -stage-environment fit: the degree to which the environment supports a child’s developmental needs -no single age groupin system for schools is ideal for all children, -effects self-esteem negatively (transitioing) Coeducational vs sm gender schools -children in single-gender schools do better academically and perhaps socially than children in coeducational schools, perhaps because of the differences in the characteristics of the schools and the parents who select them Class size and organization Advantages of small classes -being in a small clas, like being in a small school is beneficial for chidlren’s social development, particularly in the early grades -more student teacher interactions and more personalizaed -students participate more, pay more attention… etc -thus teachers also more satisfied Benefits of open classrooms -open classroom: a relatively unstructured organization in which different areas of the room are devoted to particular activities and children work either alone or in small groups under the teacher’s supervision -offer scoail benefits, more varied social contacts, more self reliant, and cooperative behavior Cooperative learning -cooperative learning:a teaching technique in which small groups of students work together -positive effect on children’s self –esteem, concerned feeleings about peers, willingness to help, and enjoyment of school Peer tutors -peer tutoring: a method of instruction in which an older, more experienced student tutors a younger, less experienced child -beneift in self-esteem and status, and they derive satisfaction from helping others -tutors usually gain more^ The teachers impact Teacher-student relationships -children whose relationship with the teacher is close and warm have high levels of school adjustment and are likely to be accepted by their peers. Minority children are especially likely to benefit from close teacher-child ties -appear to be some racist interpretations -collectivist countries value student-teacher relati
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