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Ch 12.docx

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Stuart Kamenetsky

Ch. 12 -An act is aggressive if the aggressor intends it to harm the victim, the victim perceives it to be harmful, and it is considered aggressive according to the norms of the community Types of aggression -proactive aggression (sometimes referred to instrumental aggression): behavior in which a person is hurt or injured by someone who is motivated by a desire to achieve a specific goal -reactive aggression: a form of hostile behavior in response to an attack, threat, or frustration, usually motivated by anger -physical aggression: a form of hostile behavior that inflicts physical damage or discomfort -verbal aggression: words that inflict pain by yelling, insulting, ridiculing, humiliating, and so on -social aggression: making verbal attacks or hurtful nonverbal gestures, such as rolling the eyes or sticking out the tongue -relational aggression: behaviors that damages or destroys interpersonal relationships by means such as exclusion or gossip -direct aggression: physical or verbal hostile behavior that directly targets another person -indirect aggression: hostile behavior committed by an unidentified perpetrator that hurts another person by indirect means Patterns of Aggression Developmental changes in Aggression -types of aggression change in frequency with development. -Proactive aggression is most common in infancy and early childhood. -In middle childhood, reactive aggression becomes more common than proactive aggression -children also become more verbal and less physical in their aggression -Relational aggression becomes more common and sophisticated -in adolescence, serious violent offenses, such as assault, robbery, and rape increase -individual differences in aggression are quite stable from childhood to adulthood. -A small number of children are physically aggressive at a young age (early starters) and remain highly aggressive; the majority of individuals show a steady decline in aggression after their early years. -Individuals who are late starters begin to act aggressive during adolescence and are less likely to show long-term patterns in adulthood -early starters: children who start to behave aggressively at a young age and often remain aggressive through childhood and adolescence -late starters: children who begin to act aggressively in adolescence and tend not to continue their aggressive heavier in adulthood Gender differences in Aggression -few differences in infancy -boys are more physically aggressive than girls -girls are more likely to use verbal strategies to solve their conflicts -men who were aggressive boys were likely to commit violent offenses including drunk driving, spousal abuse, and criminal traffic violations, whereas women who were aggressive girls were likely to commit nonviolent offenses, such as drug use -rates of nonphysical antisocial behavior, including lying, cheating, and stealing, were higher for boys than for girls in a study of children -boys are also about twice as likely as girls to violate the rights of others and break norms -girls are more likely than boys to disapprove of aggression and to anticipate parental disapproval for acting aggressively -both boys and girls use relational aggression (boys use relational aggression more) - but girls use more relational aggression than physical aggression whereas the reverse is true for boys -boys are more likely to instigate Causes of Aggression Biological origins of
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