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Canada (158,417)
Psychology (1,867)
PSY311H5 (58)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6 - The Self and Others

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Stuart Kamenetsky

Chapter6TheSelfandOthersTHE SENSE OF SELFIndividual self refers to aspects of the self that make a person unique ex I am hard working confident creative etc Relational self refers to aspects of the self that involve connections to other people and develops out of social interactions ex I love my friends I get along with my teammates and coach etcCollective self refers to the persons concept of self within a group such as a group based on race ethnicity or gender Thanks to recent technological advances new forms of selfrepresentation have occurred such as the online self which is an online identity used in forums or games that allow people an opportunity to try out new identities that dont necessarily map onto their reallife self The genomic self contains information about your biological and psychological traits Developmental Origins of SelfConceptTo study an infants selfrecognition researchers put a red dot on their nose or a sticker on their forehead and turn the child towards a mirror If the child recognized their reflection as themselves they will touch their own face oChildren under the age of 1 do not recognize themselves in the mirror and act as if their reflection is another child oSometime in the second year children begin to recognize themselves in the mirror By the time they reach 2 years old they giggle show embarrassment or act silly at the sight of their red nose However their selfrecognition is limited to the here and nowoBy 4 years old children are able to recognize their past self when researchers show them a videotape of themselves with a dot on their nose Susan Harter identified 3 stages in the development of selfdescriptions in childhood and another three in adolescence 34 yearsThey focus on observable physical features I have blue eyes I like to swim I preferences possessions and social have a dog and I have a big characteristicsbrother 57 yearsChildren focus on competencies They are very I am good at running jumping and positive in their selfdescriptions and overestimate school work their abilities810 yearsThey become more aware of their private selves I am smart I am popular I am nice and their unique feelings They use labels that are and I am helpful I am good in based on their abilities and interpersonal attributesmath but not languageEarly Children describe themselves in terms of social I am goodlooking I am intelligent adolescencerelationships personality traits emotions and and I am cheerfulstable psychological characteristicsMiddle Young people are introspective and preoccupied with what others think of them The adolescencegrowing ability to think in the abstract allows the adolescent to create a more integrated view of the self They may characterize themselves as a misfit because they feel socially out of sync Late adolescenceSelfdescriptions emphasize personal beliefs values and moral standards They think about future and possible selves and are able to integrate potentially contradictory attributes to develop a coherent theory of self Difficulty Developing a Sense of Self Autistic ChildrenChildren with autism do not seem to recognize themselves as independent social beings In one study 31 of autistic children did not show any signs of selfrecognition when they see themselves in a mirror When they do recognize themselves they demonstrate little emotional responseResearchers have found that autistic children unlike nonautistic children show similar neurological responses to their own face and unfamiliar faces SELFPERCEPTIONSGlobal SelfEsteemSelfesteem a global evaluation of ones worth as a person High selfesteem in childhood is linked to a variety of positive adjustment outcomes including school success good relationships with parents and peers and a lack of anxiety and depressions Those will high selfesteem also tend to be higher than those with low selfesteem However it is unclear of the directionality of this correlation good grades can lead to high selfesteem or high selfesteem can just as likely lead to good grades High selfesteem can sometimes be detrimental It can foster experimentation that can increase early sexual activity and drinking Aggressive adolescents with high selfesteem were more likely to justify their antisocial behaviours and belittling of victims than aggressive adolescents with lower selfesteem DomainSpecific PerceptionsChildren develop domainspecific selfperceptions in areas such as scholastics athletics and appearance A child can have a high selfperception of competence in schoolwork but a poor selfperception of competence on the athletic field The HarterSelf Perception Profile for Children measures a childs selfperception of five domains scholastic ability athletic competence physical appearance behavioural conduct and social acceptance
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