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PSY311H5 (63)
Chapter 12

Chapter 12 - Aggression

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Stuart Kamenetsky

Chapter12AggressionTYPES OF AGGRESSIONProactive aggression behavior in which a person is hurt or injured by someone who is motivated by a desire to achieve a specific goalReactive aggression a form of hostile behaviour in response to an attack threat or frustration usually motivated by angerPhysical aggression a form of hostile behaviour that inflicts physical damage or discomfortVerbal aggression words that inflict pain by yelling insulting ridiculing humiliating and so onSocial aggression making verbal attacks or hurtful nonverbal gestures such as rolling the eyesRelational aggression behaviour that damages or destroys interpersonal relationships by means such as exclusion or gossipIndirect aggression hostile behaviour committed by an unidentified perpetrator that hurts another person by indirect means ex destroying propertyPATTERNS OF AGGRESSIONDevelopmental Changes in AggressionInfancy 02Children express anger and frustration Early signs of aggression appear such as pushing or shoving Differences in irritability predict aggression later onPreschool 26Proactive and relational ignoring aggression appears Verbal aggression increases Boys are more physically aggressive than girlsElementary 610Reactive aggression increases while proactive aggression decreases Girls use relational aggression while boys use both relational and physical Relational aggression becomes more sophisticated gossiping rumors AdolescenceAggressive children seek aggressive peers Relational aggression continues Boys are more violent than girls Hormonal changes are related to increases of reactive aggression in boys Gender Differences in AggressionBoys are more likely than girls to instigate and to be involved in direct physical aggressive incidents and overt verbal attacks ex namecalling taunting threatening This difference is universal across all SES groups and culturesGirls decrease in the amount of physical aggression as they get older
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