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PSY311H5 (58)

Little et al. 2003 Summary NOTES

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Stuart Kamenetsky

Littleetal2003INTRODUCTIONChildrens services are defined as services organized by not necessarily provided by health education social and police services for children with the intention of addressing an identified social need A child is in need if their health or development is actually impaired or likely to become so in the absence of remedial services WHAT IS RISKRisk generally refers to an individuals chance of developing a disease ex a child with a poor diet is at risk for poor health in adulthood Risk is generally expressed in terms of numerical odds and is calculated by comparing the adult health of peple who had good and bad conditions as childrenRisk factors for children to develop antisocial behaviour includes being troublesome in primary school coming from a poor family having a large family size having a criminal parent being badly brought up and having a below average intelligence Risk is something that increase the chance of a specific outcome occurringWhen used in child service matters risk refers to a child who has been or is more likely than others to be maltreated This definition is not useful for the following reasonsoIt focuses on service responses rather than child developmentoThere is not a great deal of specificity about what the child is at risk of oIt is rare for a numeric figure to be given to the size of the riskoIt is rare for the important distinction between risk and probability to be made oIn this context at risk is seldom linked to factors that might explain the increased likelihood of the event or circumstance occurring Garmezy defines risk research as the identification of factors that accentuate or inhibit disease and deficiency states and the processes that underlie them This definition suggests the followingoThe function of measuring risk is to predict which children will experience a deficiency state and why oThe same risk factors can increase the changes of poor outcomes in one context and decrease it in others For example a large family size increases the risk of antisocial behaviour but is also a protective factor because it offers a broader range of social support oThis definition includes the world processes It is necessary to comprehend the mechanisms that connect the factors and result
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