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PSY311H5 (63)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9 - Schools, Mentors, Media: Connections with Society

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY311H5
Professor
Stuart Kamenetsky
Semester
Spring

Description
NotesFromReadingCHAPTER9SCHOOLSMENTORSMEDIACONNECTIONSWITHSOCIETYPGS263295THE ROLE OF THE SCHOOL IN SOCIAL DEVELOPMENTSchools as Social CommunitiesChildren develop a sense of community in their school when they their teachers and the school staff share goals and values support each others efforts and believe that everyone makes an important contribution to school lifeWhen children attend schools in which they have a strong sense of community they do better socially are less emotionally distressed more prosocial and less likely to drop out of schoolCollective Efficacy Peoples shared beliefs in their collective power to achieve a goal or produce a desired result Promoting collective efficacy is likely to improve both student achievement and classroom climate and childrens social behaviour as well School Size and OrganizationBig School Small SchooloResearch shows that students suffer if schools have more than 600 students oIn smaller schools students had more opportunities to join teams and clubs because there were more positions than student to fill them Students also felt greater obligation to play an active role in the small school and develop a stronger sense of belongingoLarger school size is associated with less extracurricular participation and less student attachment to the schooloStudents who participate in extracurricular activities have better school attendance higher selfesteem and high achievement motivationThey are also less likely to get involved in delinquent acts become pregnant experience depression or commit suicide Age Groupings in SchoolsoTraditionally school was separated into two agebased segments the first eight years and the next four oToday there are different organizational schemes the first 6 years of elementary school followed by 3 years of junior high or middle school followed by 3 years of high schooloResearch suggests that this organizational change was not positive for childrenstudents thwho go to middle school and enter a new school for 7 grade are likely to experience more social and academic problems than children who stay in their familiar schooloIn middle school childrens friendship networks are disrupted as a result of attending classes with children from different elementary schools and competition among peers is fiercer because of this change and more stringent grading policiesoStageEnvironment Fit The degree to which the environment supports a childs developmental needs oIf change comes too suddenly is too early or occurs in too many areas at once children are likely to suffer They do better in terms of selfesteem and behavioural coping if they have some arena of comfort in their lives oEntry into high school exposes them to a fully compartmentalized curriculum more academic tracking and an even more impersonal social climateoCarnegie Foundation and the National Middle Schools Association have proposed ways to reform secondary schools to reduce the negative impact of school transitions suggesting to turn schools into sets of smaller learning communities increase teacher awareness and provide advising and counselling for all students oAdolescents in these school have higher selfesteem and fewer behavioural problemsCoeducational vs SameSex SchoolsoEvidence shows that achievement and career aspiration are higher esp for girls in singlesex schools
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