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PSY311H5 (58)


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University of Toronto Mississauga
Stuart Kamenetsky

Chapter 8Peers The Wider World of Social DevelopmentPeer InteractionsChildrens interactions with peers are briefer freer and more equal than interactions with adults These interactions facilitate interpersonal exploration and growth in social competenceDevelopmental Patterns of Peer InteractionInfants interact with peers by vocalizing and touchingToddlers exchange turns and roles during interactions with peers major achievements include sharing meaning with a peer and engaging in mutual pretend playChildren increase their preference for interacting with peers rather than adults as they growCompanionship with peers of the same age increases over the school yearsChildren are likely to choose samegender play partnersIn adolescence gender segregation lessens as dating begins Peer relationships are used to explore and enhance identitiesPeers as SocializersPeers act as models of social behavior reinforce and punish each another serve as standards against which children evaluate themselves and provide opportunities for developing a sense of belongingPeers have a stronger influence than parents on adolescents lifestyle choicesPatterns of peer interaction and influence are different in different culturesPeer StatusPeer status is assessed with sociometric techniques by having children identify peers they like and dont like peer acceptance is assessed with ratings of how much children like or dislike each classmate Children are classified as popular rejected neglected controversial or averageSociometric techniquesonominations sociometric techniqueorosterandrating sociometric procedureperceived popularityoin childhood this is quite strongly related to popularity assessed w sociometric techniques but in adolescence weak associations because popularity involves social prominence rather than simply likingdisliking someonePeer status depends on childrens abilities to initiate interaction communicate effectively respond to others interests and behaviors and cooperate in activitiesPopular children engage in prosocial behavior and help set the norms for the group Nonaggressiverejected children tend to be withdrawn and lack social skills osocial withdrawal is one of the strongest correlates of peer rejection in middle childhood and adolescenceNeglected children
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