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PSY311H5 (58)


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University of Toronto Mississauga
Stuart Kamenetsky

Chapter 12 Aggression: Insult and Injury Chapter Outline AGGRESSION: INSULT AND INJURY TYPES OF AGGRESSION PATTERNS OF AGGRESSION DEVELOPMENTALCHANGES IAGGRESSION GENDERD IFFERENCESAIGGRESSION Learning from Living Leaders: Nicki Crick STABILITY INDIVIDUADIFFERENCESAIGGRESSION Into Adulthood: From Childhood Aggression to Road Rage CAUSES OF AGGRESSION BIOLOGICAO RIGINS AGGRESSIVBEHAVIOR Genetics and Aggression Learning from Living Leaders: Terrie E. Moffitt Temperament and Aggression My Brain Made Me Do It: The Neurological Basis of Aggression Blame It on My Hormones Prenatal Conditions SOCIALNFLUENCES ON TDEEVELOPMENT AFGGRESSION Parents as Interactive Partners Abusive Parenting and Aggression A Coercion Model of Aggression Parents as Providers of Opportunities for Aggression The Influence of Peers Neighborhoods as Breeding Grounds Culture as a Determinant of Aggression Insights from Extremes: Child Soldiers Violence in the Electronic Media COMBINEDB IOLOGICAL ASOCIALNFLUENCES OA GGRESSION Research up Close: Genes, Environmental Triggers, and Aggressive Behavior SOCIOCOGNITIFACTORS IN TDEEVELOPMENT OAGGRESSION Learning from Living Leaders: Kenneth A. Dodge BULLIES ANVICTIMS Behavior of Bullies and Victims Consequences of Bullying Real-World Application: Cyberfighting and Cyberbullying Conditions Leading to Bullying CONTROL OFA GGRESSION Bet You Thought That . . . You Could Reduce Aggressive Feelings by “Letting off Steam” Cognitive Modification Strategies Parents as Agents for Aggression Reduction Schools as Venues for Intervention Aggression Prevention: A Multipronged Effort Cultural Context: Preventing Youth Violence Chapter Summary Key Terms At the Movies Learning Objectives 1. Distinguish between the different types of aggression (proactive, reactive, physical, verbal social, relational, direct, and indirect). 2. Describe patterns in aggression in relation to age, gender, and stability over time. 3. Explain the difference between early and late starters. 4. Discuss the biological origins of aggression including what is known about genetics, temperament, the brain, hormones, and prenatal conditions. 5. Discuss parental influences on the development of aggression including parent-child interactions, abusive parenting, the coercion model, and parents as providers of opportunities for aggression. 6. Describe the role of peers, neighborhoods, and culture as determinants of aggression. 7. Discuss how exposure to violence in media contributes to aggression. 8. Discuss biological by social interactions in the development of aggression. 9. Describe sociocognitive influences on aggression development including the role of hostile attribution bias. 10. Distinguish the behaviors of bullies and victims. 11. Describe the different forms of victimization. 12. Summarize what is known about the consequences of bullying. 13. Describe the conditions that lead to bullying. 14. Describe the ways in which children can control or reduce their aggression using cognitive modification strategies. 15. Discuss interventions at the level of parenting that can serve to reduce children’s aggression. 16. Discuss school interventions that can reduce children’s aggression. 17. Describe and discuss the benefits of a multipronged approach to reducing children’s aggression. Student Handout 12-1 Chapter Summary Definitions of Aggression • An act is aggressive if the aggressor intends it to harm the victim, the victim perceives it to be harmful, and it is considered aggressive according to the norms of the community. • Types of aggression include proactive (or instrumental) aggression, which occurs in the service of a goal such as acquiring an object, and reactive (or hostile aggression), which occurs in response to a threat, attack, or frustration. Developmental Changes in Aggression • Types of aggression change in frequency with development. Proactive aggression is most common in infancy and early childhood. In middle childhood, reactive aggression becomes more common than proactive aggression. Children also become more verbal and less physical in their aggression. Relational aggression becomes more common and sophisticated. In adolescence, serious violent offenses, such as assault, robbery, and rape, increase. • Individual differences in aggression are quite stable from childhood to adulthood. A small number of children are physically aggressive at a young age (early starters) and remain highly aggressive; the majority of individuals show a steady decline in aggression after their early years. Individuals who are late starters begin to act aggressive during adolescence and are less likely to show long-term patterns of aggression in adulthood. Gender Differences in Aggression • Boys are more physically aggressive than girls. Girls are more likely to use verbal strategies to solve their conflicts. Both boys and girls use relational aggression, but girls use more relational aggression than physical aggression whereas the reverse is true for boys. Causes of Aggression • Aggressive children are likely to have aggressive relatives, irritable and impulsive temperaments, lower levels of serotonin, higher levels of testosterone, and prenatal complications. • Parenting behavior including erratic and severe physical punishment and overly strict control contribute to elevated levels of child aggression. • Association with deviant peers can increase the possibility that a child will engage in aggressive activities. Poverty and high-crime neighborhoods can also promote aggressive behavior. Individualistic cultures have higher rates of aggression than collectivist societies. • Violent TV and video games are associated with increases in aggressive behavior. • Children who have or experience more of these adverse factors are at greatest risk for aggressiveness. Bullies and Victims • Bullying is a major issue in schools in many countries. It can be direct (verbal or physical) or indirect. Victims are either passive (do not react aggressively to being bullied) or provocative (respond aggressively to being bullied). Some children are both bullies and victims. • Being either a chronic bully or a chronic victim has psychological consequences, such as increased anxiety, depression, and social withdrawal. • Having a best friend, especially a physically strong one, can reduce victimization. • Cyber fighting and cyber bullying can lead to negative psychological outcomes, including suicide. Control of Aggression • Catharsis or “letting off steam” is an ineffective aggression control strategy. • Aggression can be reduced by teaching children how to read other peoples’ behavior more accurately and encouraging them to be more sensitive to the views and feelings of others. • Multifaceted intervention programs in which children, parents, teachers, and schools participate are effective approaches to reducing aggression. Student Handout 12-2 Key Terms GLOSSARY TERMS bullying Use of aggression against weaker individuals to gain status or power. catharsis Discharging aggressive impulses by engaging in actual or symbolic hostile acts. cyber bullying Using threats, embarrassment, or humiliation against a victim with some form of interactive digital medium. deviancy training Amplification of aggression that occurs when adole
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