Aggression: Insult and Injury
AGGRESSION: INSULT AND INJURY
TYPES OF AGGRESSION
PATTERNS OF AGGRESSION
Learning from Living Leaders: Nicki Crick
Into Adulthood: From Childhood Aggression to Road Rage
CAUSES OF AGGRESSION
BIOLOGICAO RIGINS AGGRESSIVBEHAVIOR
Genetics and Aggression
Learning from Living Leaders: Terrie E. Moffitt
Temperament and Aggression
My Brain Made Me Do It: The Neurological Basis of Aggression
Blame It on My Hormones
SOCIALNFLUENCES ON TDEEVELOPMENT AFGGRESSION
Parents as Interactive Partners
Abusive Parenting and Aggression
A Coercion Model of Aggression
Parents as Providers of Opportunities for Aggression
The Influence of Peers
Neighborhoods as Breeding Grounds
Culture as a Determinant of Aggression
Insights from Extremes: Child Soldiers
Violence in the Electronic Media COMBINEDB IOLOGICAL ASOCIALNFLUENCES OA GGRESSION
Research up Close: Genes, Environmental Triggers, and Aggressive Behavior
SOCIOCOGNITIFACTORS IN TDEEVELOPMENT OAGGRESSION
Learning from Living Leaders: Kenneth A. Dodge
Behavior of Bullies and Victims
Consequences of Bullying
Real-World Application: Cyberfighting and Cyberbullying
Conditions Leading to Bullying
CONTROL OFA GGRESSION
Bet You Thought That . . . You Could Reduce Aggressive Feelings by “Letting
Cognitive Modification Strategies
Parents as Agents for Aggression Reduction
Schools as Venues for Intervention
Aggression Prevention: A Multipronged Effort
Cultural Context: Preventing Youth Violence
At the Movies Learning Objectives
1. Distinguish between the different types of aggression (proactive, reactive, physical, verbal
social, relational, direct, and indirect).
2. Describe patterns in aggression in relation to age, gender, and stability over time.
3. Explain the difference between early and late starters.
4. Discuss the biological origins of aggression including what is known about genetics,
temperament, the brain, hormones, and prenatal conditions.
5. Discuss parental influences on the development of aggression including parent-child
interactions, abusive parenting, the coercion model, and parents as providers of opportunities
6. Describe the role of peers, neighborhoods, and culture as determinants of aggression.
7. Discuss how exposure to violence in media contributes to aggression.
8. Discuss biological by social interactions in the development of aggression.
9. Describe sociocognitive influences on aggression development including the role of hostile
10. Distinguish the behaviors of bullies and victims.
11. Describe the different forms of victimization.
12. Summarize what is known about the consequences of bullying.
13. Describe the conditions that lead to bullying.
14. Describe the ways in which children can control or reduce their aggression using cognitive
15. Discuss interventions at the level of parenting that can serve to reduce children’s aggression.
16. Discuss school interventions that can reduce children’s aggression.
17. Describe and discuss the benefits of a multipronged approach to reducing children’s
aggression. Student Handout 12-1
Definitions of Aggression
• An act is aggressive if the aggressor intends it to harm the victim, the victim perceives it to be
harmful, and it is considered aggressive according to the norms of the community.
• Types of aggression include proactive (or instrumental) aggression, which occurs in the service
of a goal such as acquiring an object, and reactive (or hostile aggression), which occurs in
response to a threat, attack, or frustration.
Developmental Changes in Aggression
• Types of aggression change in frequency with development. Proactive aggression is most
common in infancy and early childhood. In middle childhood, reactive aggression becomes
more common than proactive aggression. Children also become more verbal and less physical
in their aggression. Relational aggression becomes more common and sophisticated. In
adolescence, serious violent offenses, such as assault, robbery, and rape, increase.
• Individual differences in aggression are quite stable from childhood to adulthood. A small
number of children are physically aggressive at a young age (early starters) and remain highly
aggressive; the majority of individuals show a steady decline in aggression after their early
years. Individuals who are late starters begin to act aggressive during adolescence and are less
likely to show long-term patterns of aggression in adulthood.
Gender Differences in Aggression
• Boys are more physically aggressive than girls. Girls are more likely to use verbal strategies to
solve their conflicts. Both boys and girls use relational aggression, but girls use more relational
aggression than physical aggression whereas the reverse is true for boys.
Causes of Aggression
• Aggressive children are likely to have aggressive relatives, irritable and impulsive
temperaments, lower levels of serotonin, higher levels of testosterone, and prenatal
• Parenting behavior including erratic and severe physical punishment and overly strict control
contribute to elevated levels of child aggression.
• Association with deviant peers can increase the possibility that a child will engage in
aggressive activities. Poverty and high-crime neighborhoods can also promote aggressive
behavior. Individualistic cultures have higher rates of aggression than collectivist societies.
• Violent TV and video games are associated with increases in aggressive behavior.
• Children who have or experience more of these adverse factors are at greatest risk for
Bullies and Victims
• Bullying is a major issue in schools in many countries. It can be direct (verbal or physical) or
indirect. Victims are either passive (do not react aggressively to being bullied) or provocative
(respond aggressively to being bullied). Some children are both bullies and victims. • Being either a chronic bully or a chronic victim has psychological consequences, such as
increased anxiety, depression, and social withdrawal.
• Having a best friend, especially a physically strong one, can reduce victimization.
• Cyber fighting and cyber bullying can lead to negative psychological outcomes, including
Control of Aggression
• Catharsis or “letting off steam” is an ineffective aggression control strategy.
• Aggression can be reduced by teaching children how to read other peoples’ behavior more
accurately and encouraging them to be more sensitive to the views and feelings of others.
• Multifaceted intervention programs in which children, parents, teachers, and schools
participate are effective approaches to reducing aggression. Student Handout 12-2
bullying Use of aggression against weaker individuals to
gain status or power.
catharsis Discharging aggressive impulses by engaging in
actual or symbolic hostile acts.
cyber bullying Using threats, embarrassment, or humiliation
against a victim with some form of interactive
deviancy training Amplification of aggression that occurs when