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PSY311H5 (63)


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Stuart Kamenetsky

Chapter 14 Overarching Themes: Integrating Social Development Chapter Outline OVERARCHING THEMES: INTEGRATING SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT WHAT WE KNOW: SOME TAKE-HOME PRINCIPLES V IEWS OF TSOCIALCHILD The Child Is Socially Competent from an Early Age The Child’s Social Behavior Is Organized The Child’s Social Behavior Becomes Increasingly Sophisticated The Child Is Embedded in Levels of Social Complexity Children’s Interactions with Other People Are Reciprocal and Transactional O RGANIZATION AEXPLANATION OC HILDRES SOCIALBEHAVIOR Aspects of Development Are Interdependent Social Behavior Has Multiple Interacting Causes All Causes Are Important SOCIALAGENTS ANDCONTEXTS FOS OCIAD EVELOPMENT Social Behavior Is Influenced by Social Agents in Social Systems Social Behavior Varies across Both Situations and Individuals Social Development Occurs in a Cultural Context Social Development Occurs in a Historical Context Some Aspects of Social Development Are Universal PROGRESS ANP ATHWAYS OS OCIAD EVELOPMENT Development May Be Gradual and Continuous or Rapid and Dramatic Early Experience Is Important, But Its Effects Are Not Irreversible There Is No Single Pathway to Normal or Abnormal Development Tracing Both Normative Pathways and Individual Pathways Is Important Development Is a Lifelong Process GLIMPSING THE FUTURE: METHODOLOGICAL, THEORETICAL, AND POLICY IMPERATIVES M ETHODOLOGICAL IMPERATIVES Questions Take Priority over Methods No Single Method Will Suffice No Single Reporter Will Suffice No Single Sample Will Suffice THEORETICAL MPERATIVES No Single Theory Will Suffice No Single Discipline Will Suffice POLICY MPERATIVES Research on Social Development Can Inform Social Policy Social Policy Can Inform Research on Social Development One-Size-Fits-All Social Policies Are Inadequate Social Development Is Everyone's Responsibility 2 Learning Objectives 1. Summarize the take-home principles including that children are socially competent from an early age, display socially organized behavior, display increasingly sophisticated social behavior are embedded in levels of social complexity, and have interactions with others that are reciprocal and transactional. 2. Understand that social development is associated and interdependent with other areas of development and that all causal factors (e.g., biology, environment) are important. 3. Describe the agents of socialization and the social systems in which socialization occurs. 4. Understand that social behavior varies across individuals and situations, and that while social development occurs in cultural and historical contexts, some aspects of social development are universal. 5. Discus the process of social development as both continuous and discontinuous, as influenced but not determined by early experience, and following many normative and individual pathways across the lifespan. 6. Understand that good research in social development requires that we first have good questions. 7. Describe the benefits of multiple methods, reporters, and samples for the study of social development. 8. Understand the importance of collaboration across areas and perspectives of psychology and across disciplines for the future of social development research. 9. Describe the important bidirectional relationship of policy and research. 10. Describe what is meant by one-size-fits-all policy and the shortcomings of this approach. 11. Recognize that social development is everyone’s responsibility. Student Handout 14-1 Chapter Overview What We Know: Some Take-Home Principles Views of the Social Child The Child Is Socially Competent from an Early Age Infants are competent and active beings who possess a wide range of social and emotional capabilities Newborns can use their sensory, perceptual, and motor capacities to respond to social signals and communicate their needs By age 1 infants can use social referencing to guide their behavior in uncertain situations and can produce social signals to alert others to interesting events By age 2 infants can infer that other people have thoughts, feelings, and intentions The Child’s Social Behavior Is Organized Crying, smiling, and looking are organized response patterns that enable even very young infants to interact with others Infants develop working models of their social world that guide interactions with others Across development children use social information in increasingly organized and strategic ways The Child’s Social Behavior Becomes Increasingly Sophisticated As children develop they demonstrate social competence in more mature forms and under more challenging conditions Social development is not only acquiring social skills but also being able to deploy these skills in circumstances involving more abstract tasks and in the face of competing demands The Child Is Embedded in Levels of Social Complexity Dyadic, triadic and group interactions Social relationships Social groups Social networks Society or culture Children’s Interactions with Other People Are Reciprocal and Transactional Children influence the behavior of other people around them and are influenced by the reactions of these other people in return Difficult vs. easy infants elicit different responses from social partners Pattern of mutual modification over time is best described as transactional Organization and Explanation of Children’s Social Behavior Aspects of Development are Interdependent Shifts in other domains, including motor skills, language abilities, and cognitive functions, play a 4 role in social development Social development is a “package deal” that is fueled by advances in other areas Social Behavior Has Multiple Interacting Causes Biological factors Genetics, brain organization, and hormonal levels Environmental factors Parents’ behavior, peer relations, school experiences, cultural background, mass media Systems theory approaches, which emphasize the interplay among biological and environmental influences, help to organize the multiple causes of social development coherently All Causes Are Important No single set of causes is more “real” or more important than another It is our task to figure out how different causal factors work together to facilitate or hinder children’s social development Social Agents and Contexts for Social Development Social Behavior Is Influenced By Many Social Agents in Multiple Social Systems Family system e.g., parents, siblings Larger social systems e.g., schools, communities, media, and society Need to specify how exposure to these agents who are embedded in multiple social systems alter social development over time Social Behavior Varies Across Both Situations and Individuals Although children behave differently in different situations, this does not mean that child behavior is determined only by the situation Children’s individual characteristics also matter Ou
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