Textbook Notes (368,844)
Canada (162,200)
Psychology (1,899)
PSY313H5 (24)
Chapter 8

PSY213 Chapter 8.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

Giampaolo Moraglia

PSY213 –Chapter8Notes Education, Work, Leisure, and Retirement  Typical life structure in industrialized societies is age-differentiated: roles are based on age o Age-differentiated structure: education work and leisure roles are largely “assigned” to different phases of life o Age-integrated structure: spread all three kinds of roles throughout the adult life span and help break down barriers between generations  Age-differentiates roles are a holdover from an earlier era, when life was shorter and social institutions were less diverse o Results in a structural lag: increasing numbers of older adults are able to contribute to society, but opportunities to use and reward their abilities are inadequate  In an age-integrated society, all kinds of roles – learning, working, and playing – would be open to adults of all ages o They could intersperse periods of education, work and leisure throughout the life span  Much of the research about education, work, and leisure reflects the older, age-differentiated model of social roles, and the cohorts whose lives it describes Education College and University Studies  Undergraduate enrollment in 2002 (14.3M) nearly double that in 1970 o Increase accompanied by decrease in proportion of “traditional” students (those who enroll full time immediately after high school, work part time or not at all, and are financially dependent on parents) o “Non-traditional” students represent growing proportion of the student body in postsecondary education  More students over 24 and more women undergrads  Adults who choose to go back to school are highly motivated. They bring individuality and life experience to the classroom.  Number of minority students in higher education nearly doubled since 1980  25% in undergraduate enrollment (4 year)  36% in public two year institutions  Participation rates for minority women grown more rapidly since 1990 than rates for black, white, and Hispanic men o Percentage of minority population with degrees still lags behind that of whites  Education = key to employment o Persons with lower levels of education are more likely to be unemployed than those with higher levels of educational attainment. o Based on 1999 earnings averages, lifetime earnings are estimated to be approx. $0.5 million for high school graduates and $1 million – twice as much – for holders of bachelor’s degrees  Men continue to earn more than women at each level of education  Men with professional degrees, such as doctors of lawyers, will earn approx. $2 million more than women with equivalent degrees over their lifetimes Lifelong Learning  China’s program exemplifies a trend toward lifelong learning – organized, sustained study by adults of all ages  Educational programs specifically designed for mature adults are booming in many parts of the world. 1. E.g. Elderhostel = international network of approximately 1600 educational and cultural institutions in more than 90 countries, offering nearly 10 000 lower-cost, non-credit travel and education programs each year. 2. Research on Elderhostel has found that satisfaction with the learning experience has no relationship to age  Since establishment of the Act for Lifelong Learning in 1949, the government of Japan has officially supported learning as a lifelong process 1. Kouminkans (adult community educational centers) established and government financial subsidies provided to encourage lifelong education and learning  Work-related course reported to be the most prevalent from of lifelong learning among non- traditional-age students (30%), followed by personal interest courses (21%)  Why do mature adults go to school? 5 common goals: 1. To gain adaptive knowledge and skills  Keep up w/ new developments in their fields, move up the career ladder, etc. 2. To train for new occupations  When old ones become obsolete/ when their needs and interests change  E.g. middle aged women who have devoted their young adult years to homemaking and parenthood 3. To understand and cope with technological and cultural change  E.g. use of computers 4. To understand their own aging processes  Particularly changes in memory and other aspects of cognition, and to learn strategies for making the most of their abilities 5. To develop new and satisfying retirement and leisure roles  E.g. studying foreign language to prep for travel abroad  Growing need for educational programs for widows, focusing on independent living, management of personal finances, and development of new relationships because of disparity in life expectancy b/w men and women  Individuals must be prepared to have several careers, each perhaps quite different from the others. And as some occupations become obsolete and others emerge or require new skills, retraining will become more and more essential.  Lifelong learning experiences that hold the most appeal for mature adults deal with subjects that are personally meaningful, taught in environments that provide direct learning experiences, allow adults control over all aspects of the learning process, and are not too expensive. Adult Illiteracy  People at the lowest literacy levels were more likely to be unemployed  Although y
More Less

Related notes for PSY313H5

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.