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PSY313H5 (24)
Chapter 11

Chapter 11 study guide

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Giampaolo Moraglia

CHAPTER 11- personality development DEFINING AND STUDYING PERSONALITY - personality differs among people in terms of quality- we are talking about ones basic nature - complex, hard to define and measure What is personality? - personality is the essence of a person (a unique, recognizable individual) - we have to infer it from behaviour - most see it has including overt behaviour but also inner strcutre of mind and emotions - believed to responsible for attitude and behaviour patterns that are fairly consistent - adaptation: is an important part of personality- its an adjustment to events, conditions of life - may adjust by changing themselves, their surroundings or both - but how a person adapts should show consistency (continuous) - thus its a persons unique, and consistent way of feeling, thinking, behaving Measuring personality - attitudes seen in young adulthood seen to affect physical health in middle age - some aspects of personality can soften with maturity ex. Impulsivity - common method to measure personality scientifically: personality inventory- a psychometric test that asks people to rate themselves on traits, report on activities, give opinions on topics - compare ratings of adults of different ages to see how personality changes over time - another technique: Q-sort: a person is given a deck of cards with statements of adjectives referring to personality characteristics- person is asked to sort the card into categories depending on how closely they describe him or her - to measure the results of therapy- get person to do it for real self (who they actually are) and ideal self (who they want to be) and compare results on different occasions - methods can be affected by observe bias or subjectivity - methods like interviews, self reports, are subjective but also open ended, therefore hard to reliably compare, quantify - also human judgement is not accurate - but still have find that human judgements can describe personality well Origins of personality: inheritance and experience - it is not fixed at birth- it evolves due to many internal and external processes - changes in environment and maturation affect how one`s character is expressed over time - temperament- is an important shaper in personality- its ones disposition- a persons characteristic, biologically based emotional style of approaching and reacting to people and situations - ex. If a person is flexible, easygoing- seems to be determined by heredity - environmental influences account for half of variations in personality www.notesolution.com- early experience can reflect temperamental differences- ex. Childs behaviour can evoke a response- ex. Parents smiling back at a baby- thus reinforces the inborn disposition that produced the smiling behaviour - childrens temperament and parents parenting style can affect eachother - as children grow, they seek out experiences that strengthen genetic tendencies (seek friends who are similar to them) - thus there is an interaction between experience and inheritance MODELS OF ADULT PERSONALITY- STABILITY OR CHANGE - trait models: focus on emotional, mental, temperamental behaviour traitsattributes - mechanistic: reduce personality to basic elements - assume that traits can predict its influence on behaviour - think that adult personality changes very little - self concept models: look at how people view themselves - see that people actively controltheir development - organismic perspective (ex. Piaget) - see sstability and change - stage models: organismic - there are a typical sequence of age-related development that continues throughout life - find predictable, significant changes in personality - timing of events model- contextual - change is not related to age, more related to circumstances and events of life - different perspectives= different results - trait researchers (Costa and McCrae) found 6 interrelated elements that make up most personality theories 1) basic tendencies includes personality traits, physical health, appearance, gender, intelligence (may be inherited or acquired) 2) external influences- tendencies interact with environmental influences= adaptations (roles, attitudes, habits, beliefs) 3) characteristic adaptations ex. Musical skill (produced by external influence + tendencies) 4) self-concept- shaped by tendencies and characteristic adaptations- its a sense of self (ex. Person may think she has alot of music ability but has only objectively demonstrated a bit in real life thus only partially resembles objective biography) 5) objective biography- the actual events of a persons life www.notesolution.com
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