Chapter 9 Notes

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Kathy Pichora- Fuller

Chapter 9 Cognition, emotion, wisdom, and Expertise Introduction -Cognitive decline is an inecitable aspect of aging -No measures of intellectual functioning, learning, or memory exist for which older adults reliably outperform younger adults. -In everyday decision-making and problem-solving situations, however, older adults usually shows no declines in proficiency. Furthermore, some odler adults show wisdom and expertise. Bioculutural Influences -many facets of development are co-determined through interactions between biogenetic and cultural factors. -The attributes and meanings of the term cognition reflect cultural expectations about the nature of life-span development. For example -Attributes of being bright and a fast learner are much more likely to be used in reference to the actions (or inactions) of adolescents and young adults than to the actions of middle-aged and older adults -Conversely, the attributes of being effective, sensitive, and wise are more likely to be used in reference to the actions of middle-aged or older adults than in reference to the actions of younger adults. -Adult cognitive development encompasses the consequences of biologically driven losses in function and experientially driven gains in function. -Cognitive mechanics: behavioral functions that closely depend on the status of the neural substrates of cognition (ex. The hippocampus, the prefrontal cortex) -Cognitive Pragmatics: behavioral functions that closely depend on the status on knowledge and strategies acquired through experience. -Beg. In early adulthood, the plasticity of cognitive mechanics decreases with advancing www.notesolution.comage, but increasingly the individual draws on knowledge of the culture and accumulated experience as bases or sources for replenishing lifelong development. -In the oldest adult (the fourth age) it is likely that age-related losses, accumulated injuries, illnesses, and diseases conspire to produce comprehensive deficits that seriously limit applicability of cognitive pragmatics as well as cognitive mechanics. Decision Making and Problem solving Sources of Age-related differences -the shift in the way researchers investigate possible age related differences in the effectiveness of complex cognitive functions has shifted toward looking at cognitive activities in daily life or everyday situations and toward looking at the role of emotions in decision making and problem solving -3 questions guide the study of everyday decision making 1. Does performance in real-world decision making and problem solving tasks show the benefits of experience, and is the performance of everyday tasks protected from age related declines? 2. To what extent is there a discrepancy between findings about age differences obtained from measures of basic cognitive function and measures of everyday decision making and problem solving? -recent studies suggest the measures of everyday problem solving and traditional measures of intelligence are closely related. -the relation between basic and applied measures diminishes or disappears if successful performance of everyday task depends more on emotional processing than on deliberative or effortful cognitive processing. 3.the second part of #1??? Decision Making -It seems that the kinds of decisions that older adults face are more complicated now than in past decades. -ex. Making good decisions about matters of health and health coverages can be difficult (especially organizing and submitting medical forms) -New findings clearly show that the extent to which there are age-related differences in particular kinds of decision-making tasks depends on the kinds of cognitive and emotional
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