chapter 8 study guide

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Kathy Pichora- Fuller

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Chapter 8 notes. Intelligence and creativity -Psychometric approach: a measurement-based view that has advanced understanding of the structure of intelligence. Nature of Intelligence -One of the questions concerning the nature of intelligence is whether it is a single ability or a collection of independent mental abilities. -Spearman argues that intelligence was a single ability that an individual used in any situation that involved thinking. Spearman called this unitary ability the g factor (g for general capacity) -the g factor implies that an individual performs at roughly the same level of proficiency regardless of the type of task he or she undertakes. -the idea that intelligence is conceptualized as a general ability was held by Alfred Binet. -Thurstone proposed that there are 5 to 7 primary mental abilities 1. Verbal Comprehension: the principal factor in such tests as reading comprehension, verbal analogies, disarranged sentences, verbal reasoning, and proverb interpretation. It is measured by vocabulary tests 2. Word Fluency: the principal factor in such tests as anagrams, rhyming, or naming words in a given category (ex. list as many boys names as you can, or list as many words as you can that begin with the letter B) 3.Associative Memory: The principal factor in tests that tap the extent to which one uses associative strategies to remember information. It is measured by tests of memory for paired associates 4. Perceptual Speed: The factor in tests that assess quick and accurate identification of visual details, and similarities and differences between objects. It is measured by tests of how long it takes individuals to compare the visual featured of objects or string of letter or numbers. 5. Inductive reasoning: The principal factor in tests that tap the facility to www.notesolution.comdiscover rules or underling principles. It is measured by tests such as in a number series. 6. Numerical Facility: The principal factor in tests of basic arithmetic skills and arithmetic computation. -Schaie adapted Thurstones test for use with older adults: the Schaie-Thurstone Adult Mental Abilities Test has been used to describe age-related changes in mental abilities during adulthood. -Computer analogy: intelligence consists of a number of separate software programs, each designed to carry out a particular kind of task. -John Horn argues for the existence of two components of intelligence: Crystallized and Fluid intelligence -Crystallized intelligence: represents the extent to which individuals have acquired and retained knowledge. Verbal comprehension and vocabulary. Tests used to measure it include vocabulary, simple analogies, remote associations, and judgment in everyday problem solving -Fluid Intelligence: pure ability to perceive, remember, and think about a variety of basic ideas (otherwise mental abilities that are not imparted by ones culture). Abilities include extracting relationships among patterns, drawing inferences from relationships, and comprehending implications. Primary mental abilities: spatial reasoning and perceptual speed. Measured by letter series, matrices, and figural relations. Suggested that fluid intelligence represents the integrity of the central nervous system. The measurement of intelligence -Psychometricians must consider several factors in developing an intelligence test (important to realize that intelligence does not really exist) -Intelligence is a hypothetical construct rather than a real entity -This means that psychometric tests must measure intelligence indirectly by examining a persons performance on tasks that reflect the use of intelligence -A second factor to consider is that many additional factors influence test performance. These factors include personality characteristics, motivation, educational background, anxiety, fatigue, and health -A third consideration is that it is necessary to present individuals with a variety of tasks to evaluate whether intelligence is a single mental ability, such as a g factor, or a number of mental abilities. This is why contemporary intelligence tests consist of a number of scales or
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