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Chapter 1

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Katherine Krpan

th Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology (6 Edition) PSY295 CHAPTER 1 THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGY Traumatic brain injury (TBI) a wound to the brain that results from a blow to the head. Neuropsychology the study of the relation between behaviour and brain function; draws information from anatomy, biology, biophysics, ethology, pharmacology, physiology, physiological psychology, and philosophy. It is strongly influenced by two traditional foci of experimental and theoretical investigations into brain function: the brain hypothesis and the neuron hypothesis. Brain hypothesis the idea that the brain is the source of behaviour. Neuron hypothesis the idea that the unit of brain structure and function is the neuron (nerve cell). Brain Old English word for the tissue found within the skull; has two almost symmetrical halves (hemispheres). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) salty fluid that cushions the brain and may play a role in removing metabolic waste. Cerebral cortex most distinct outer feature of the brain; the crinkled tissue that is expanded from the front of the tube to an extent that it folds over and covers much of the rest of the brain. Gyri folds of the cortex. Sulci creases between the folds of the cortex (gyri). Longitudinal fissures large sulci dividing the two hemispheres. Lateral fissure divides each hemisphere into halves. Fist analogy: lateral fissure is like the crease separating the thumb from the other fingers. Forebrainmostly constituted by cerebral cortex; developed from front part of tube that makes up an embryos primitive brain. Brainstem remaining tube underlying cortex. Spinal cord connected to the brain stem; descends down the back in vertebral column. Central nervous system (CNS) the brain and spinal cord together; connected through rest of body through nerve fibres. Peripheral nervous system (PNS) nerve fibres that carry information to/away from CNS. Sensory pathway collections of fibres that carry messages for specific sensory systems, like hearing, vision and touch. Somatic nervous system (SNS) a subdivision of the PNS in which sensory pathways carry information collected on one side of body mainly to cortex in the opposite hemisphere. Motor pathways groups of nerve fibres that connect brain and spinal cord to bodys muscles through SNS Autonomic nervous system a subdivision of the PNS which are the pathways that control internal organs Pineal gland part in controlling biorhythms; small structure high in brainstem that is not composed of two bilaterally symmetrical halves and is located close to the ventricle; pineal body (Descartes) Dualism position that mind and body are separate but interact to indicate that behaviour is caused by two things Mind-body problem difficulty in understanding how a nonmaterial mind can produce movements in a material body , while a person is still capable of being conscious and rational because the existence of the mind Materialism the idea that rational behaviour can be fully explained by the working of the nervous system without any need to refer to a nonmaterial mind Localization of function theory proposed by Gall on how the brain might produce differences in individual abilities Phrenology study of the relation between the skulls surface features and a persons faculties; phrenological map is the map of the relation between brain functions and the skull surface Lateralization property where functions could be localized to a side of the brain Brocas area anterior speech region of the brain Brocas aphasia syndrome that results from damage to the Brocas area Conduction aphasia speech deficit that Wernicke predicted, caused by disconnection of arcuate fibers. Speech sounds and movements are retained but speech is still impaired. Alexia word blindness, a disconnection between visual area of the brain and Wernickes, causes the inability to read. Apraxia inability to make sequences of movements; disconnection of motor areas from sensory. Distributed hierarchy an expression used encompassing Hughlings-Jacksons idea where the nervous system was organized as a functional hierarchy. The binding problem expresses the puzzle that although the brain analyzes sensory events through multiple, parallel channels, that do not converge on a single brain region, we perceive a unified representation of our experience. Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology (6 Edition) PSY295 Visual form agnosia the inability to recognize objects visually by their shape. Patient D.F. was able to see color, and identify objects by the color, but unable to recognize them by shape; inability to distinguish vertical/horizontal lines. Visual ataxia the ability to describe objects accurately but making errors in reaching for them. PORTRAIT: Traumatic Brain Injury L.D. (21 years old) fell down five flights of stairs and struck his head against the stairs and wall as he fell after drinking and becoming ill at a pub Unconscious then hospitalized; Glasgow Coma Scales rating of 3; computerized tomography (CT) revealed bleeding and swelling on both sides of brains, therefore two craniotomies (skull removal) were done Discharged after one month: memory of only entering pub then hospitalized for 3 weeks First neuropsychological evaluation: test scores normal, however impaired on tests of verbal memory and attention; next 4 years, more neuropsychological tests taken by L.D. Unable to multitask, became frustrated and annoyed easily, lost sense of smell and taste, lost interest in socializing Neuropsychological exams showed same results as first Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diffuse damage to both sides of L.D.s brain Able to live on his own, pack boxes at job at grocery store, excelled at golf The Brain Hypothesis People knew what the brain looked like long before they knew what it did Brains of animals and humans look the same, though they vary in size Within past 2000 years, anatomists began making drawings of brain and naming them without knowing what functions the brain and its part perform What is the brain? Ones fist can serve as a guide to the orientation of the brain and its lobes within the skull Fist analogy: occipital lobe (wrist), parietal lobe (knuckles), frontal lobe (fingers), temporal lobe (thumb), cerebellum (inside of palm closest to wrist), brainstem (heel of the hand), spinal cord (arm) Cortex of each hemisphere is divided into four lobes, named after the skull bones beneath which they lie Brains hemispheres are connected by pathways called commissures, the largest of which is the corpus callosum Three-part division of brain is conceptually useful evolutionarily (animals with spinal cords preceded those with brainstems, which preceded those with forebrains), anatomically (in prenatal development, spinal cord forms before brainstem, which forms before forebrain), and functionally (forebrain mediates cognitive function; brainstem mediates regulatory functions like eating, drinking, and moving; spinal cord responsible for sending commands to muscles) Functions performed in forebrain referred to as higher functions because includes thinking, perception and planning Regulatory and movement-producing functions of brainstem and spinal cord are referred to as lower- level functions How is the Brain Related to the Rest of the Nervous System? Brain and spinal cord in mammals are protected by bones: skull protects the brain; vertebrae protect spinal cord After damage to CNS, lost tissue does not regenerate; PNS tissue will re-grow after damage Nerve fibres bringing information to CNS extensively connected to sensory receptors on bodys surface, to internal organs and to muscles, therefore brain senses our surroundings and what goes on within our bodiesFundamentals of Human Neuropsychology (6 Edition) PSY295 Brain uses information collected in SNS to construct its current images of world, its memories of past events and its expectation of future Movements produced by motor pathways include eye movement, hand movements, and the posture of ones body Parts of cortex produce movement mainly use motor pathways to muscles on opposite side of body Sensory and motor pathways influence muscles of internal organs like the heart beating, stomach contractions, lowering and raising of diaphragm/inflation and deflation of lungs Anatomical division of human nervous system: Nervous system broken down into CNS and PNS; CNS broken down into brain and spinal cord; PNS broken down into SNS and ANS The Brain versus the Heart Oldest surviving recorded hypotheses of two Greeks, Alcmaeon of Croton (ca. 500 BC) and Empedocles of Acragas (ca. 490-430 BC); Alcmaeon located mental processes in the brain and so subscribed it to the brain hypothesis; Empedocles located them in the heart and so subscribed them to what would be called the cardiac hypothesis Physicians, Hippocrates (Greek) and Galen (Roman) described aspects of the brains anatomy and strongly argued for the brain hypothesis; Galen: surgeon and witnessed behavioural consequences of TBI/traumatic brain injury; refuted the cardiac hypothesis: brain damage impairs function but also nerves from sense organs go to brain and not to heart; pressure on brain causes the cessation of movement and even death, whereas as pressure on heart causes pain but does not arrest voluntary behaviour Now we accept the brain hypothesis, however the cardiac hypothesis has left a mark on our language, in literature (everyday speech) and emotions are also ascribed to the heart Aristotle: The Mind Greek philosopher that
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