Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology (6 Edition)
CHAPTER 1 THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) a wound to the brain that results from a blow to the head.
Neuropsychology the study of the relation between behaviour and brain function; draws information from anatomy,
biology, biophysics, ethology, pharmacology, physiology, physiological psychology, and philosophy. It is strongly
influenced by two traditional foci of experimental and theoretical investigations into brain function: the brain
hypothesis and the neuron hypothesis.
Brain hypothesis the idea that the brain is the source of behaviour.
Neuron hypothesis the idea that the unit of brain structure and function is the neuron (nerve cell).
Brain Old English word for the tissue found within the skull; has two almost symmetrical halves (hemispheres).
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) salty fluid that cushions the brain and may play a role in removing metabolic waste.
Cerebral cortex most distinct outer feature of the brain; the crinkled tissue that is expanded from the front of the tube
to an extent that it folds over and covers much of the rest of the brain.
Gyri folds of the cortex.
Sulci creases between the folds of the cortex (gyri).
Longitudinal fissures large sulci dividing the two hemispheres.
Lateral fissure divides each hemisphere into halves. Fist analogy: lateral fissure is like the crease separating the
thumb from the other fingers.
Forebrainmostly constituted by cerebral cortex; developed from front part of tube that makes up an embryos
Brainstem remaining tube underlying cortex.
Spinal cord connected to the brain stem; descends down the back in vertebral column.
Central nervous system (CNS) the brain and spinal cord together; connected through rest of body through nerve
Peripheral nervous system (PNS) nerve fibres that carry information to/away from CNS.
Sensory pathway collections of fibres that carry messages for specific sensory systems, like hearing, vision and
Somatic nervous system (SNS) a subdivision of the PNS in which sensory pathways carry information collected on
one side of body mainly to cortex in the opposite hemisphere.
Motor pathways groups of nerve fibres that connect brain and spinal cord to bodys muscles through SNS
Autonomic nervous system a subdivision of the PNS which are the pathways that control internal organs
Pineal gland part in controlling biorhythms; small structure high in brainstem that is not composed of two
bilaterally symmetrical halves and is located close to the ventricle; pineal body (Descartes)
Dualism position that mind and body are separate but interact to indicate that behaviour is caused by two things
Mind-body problem difficulty in understanding how a nonmaterial mind can produce movements in a material
body , while a person is still capable of being conscious and rational because the existence of the mind
Materialism the idea that rational behaviour can be fully explained by the working of the nervous system without
any need to refer to a nonmaterial mind
Localization of function theory proposed by Gall on how the brain might produce differences in individual abilities
Phrenology study of the relation between the skulls surface features and a persons faculties; phrenological map is
the map of the relation between brain functions and the skull surface
Lateralization property where functions could be localized to a side of the brain
Brocas area anterior speech region of the brain
Brocas aphasia syndrome that results from damage to the Brocas area
Conduction aphasia speech deficit that Wernicke predicted, caused by disconnection of arcuate fibers. Speech
sounds and movements are retained but speech is still impaired.
Alexia word blindness, a disconnection between visual area of the brain and Wernickes, causes the inability to
Apraxia inability to make sequences of movements; disconnection of motor areas from sensory.
Distributed hierarchy an expression used encompassing Hughlings-Jacksons idea where the nervous system was
organized as a functional hierarchy.
The binding problem expresses the puzzle that although the brain analyzes sensory events through multiple, parallel
channels, that do not converge on a single brain region, we perceive a unified representation of our experience. Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology (6 Edition)
Visual form agnosia the inability to recognize objects visually by their shape. Patient D.F. was able to see color,
and identify objects by the color, but unable to recognize them by shape; inability to distinguish vertical/horizontal
Visual ataxia the ability to describe objects accurately but making errors in reaching for them.
PORTRAIT: Traumatic Brain Injury
L.D. (21 years old) fell down five flights of stairs and struck his head against the stairs and wall as he
fell after drinking and becoming ill at a pub
Unconscious then hospitalized; Glasgow Coma Scales rating of 3; computerized tomography (CT)
revealed bleeding and swelling on both sides of brains, therefore two craniotomies (skull removal)
Discharged after one month: memory of only entering pub then hospitalized for 3 weeks
First neuropsychological evaluation: test scores normal, however impaired on tests of verbal memory
and attention; next 4 years, more neuropsychological tests taken by L.D.
Unable to multitask, became frustrated and annoyed easily, lost sense of smell and taste, lost interest
Neuropsychological exams showed same results as first
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diffuse damage to both sides of L.D.s brain
Able to live on his own, pack boxes at job at grocery store, excelled at golf
The Brain Hypothesis
People knew what the brain looked like long before they knew what it did
Brains of animals and humans look the same, though they vary in size
Within past 2000 years, anatomists began making drawings of brain and naming them without
knowing what functions the brain and its part perform
What is the brain?
Ones fist can serve as a guide to the orientation of the brain and its lobes within the skull
Fist analogy: occipital lobe (wrist), parietal lobe (knuckles), frontal lobe (fingers), temporal lobe
(thumb), cerebellum (inside of palm closest to wrist), brainstem (heel of the hand), spinal cord (arm)
Cortex of each hemisphere is divided into four lobes, named after the skull bones beneath which they
Brains hemispheres are connected by pathways called commissures, the largest of which is the
Three-part division of brain is conceptually useful evolutionarily (animals with spinal cords preceded
those with brainstems, which preceded those with forebrains), anatomically (in prenatal development,
spinal cord forms before brainstem, which forms before forebrain), and functionally (forebrain
mediates cognitive function; brainstem mediates regulatory functions like eating, drinking, and
moving; spinal cord responsible for sending commands to muscles)
Functions performed in forebrain referred to as higher functions because includes thinking, perception
Regulatory and movement-producing functions of brainstem and spinal cord are referred to as lower-
How is the Brain Related to the Rest of the Nervous System?
Brain and spinal cord in mammals are protected by bones: skull protects the brain; vertebrae protect
After damage to CNS, lost tissue does not regenerate; PNS tissue will re-grow after damage
Nerve fibres bringing information to CNS extensively connected to sensory receptors on bodys
surface, to internal organs and to muscles, therefore brain senses our surroundings and what goes on
within our bodiesFundamentals of Human Neuropsychology (6 Edition)
Brain uses information collected in SNS to construct its current images of world, its memories of past
events and its expectation of future
Movements produced by motor pathways include eye movement, hand movements, and the posture
of ones body
Parts of cortex produce movement mainly use motor pathways to muscles on opposite side of body
Sensory and motor pathways influence muscles of internal organs like the heart beating, stomach
contractions, lowering and raising of diaphragm/inflation and deflation of lungs
Anatomical division of human nervous system: Nervous system broken down into CNS and PNS;
CNS broken down into brain and spinal cord; PNS broken down into SNS and ANS
The Brain versus the Heart
Oldest surviving recorded hypotheses of two Greeks, Alcmaeon of Croton (ca. 500 BC) and
Empedocles of Acragas (ca. 490-430 BC); Alcmaeon located mental processes in the brain and so
subscribed it to the brain hypothesis; Empedocles located them in the heart and so subscribed them to
what would be called the cardiac hypothesis
Physicians, Hippocrates (Greek) and Galen (Roman) described aspects of the brains anatomy and
strongly argued for the brain hypothesis; Galen: surgeon and witnessed behavioural consequences of
TBI/traumatic brain injury; refuted the cardiac hypothesis: brain damage impairs function but also
nerves from sense organs go to brain and not to heart; pressure on brain causes the cessation of
movement and even death, whereas as pressure on heart causes pain but does not arrest voluntary
Now we accept the brain hypothesis, however the cardiac hypothesis has left a mark on our language,
in literature (everyday speech) and emotions are also ascribed to the heart
Aristotle: The Mind
Greek philosopher that