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PSY318H5 (12)
Chapter 2

PSY295 - Chapter 2 Textbook Notes.doc

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Katherine Krpan

PSY295CHAPTER 2THE ORIGINS OF THE HUMAN BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR Cladogramsgraphs that show the relative time of origin of closely related groupsHominidsour humanlike ancestors from the ancestral ape lineage Taller andheights were similar bipedal Long legs hand structure shaped for use of toolsGenesfunctional units that control transmissionexpression of traits from one generation to the nextMutationswhen products of genes interact with products of other causing differences among speciesParkinsons Diseaseassociated with aging in humans causes rigidity impeding voluntary movement balance issues tremors no cure cause unknownQuasievolutionary Sequencea hypothetical sequence of animals that represents consecutive stages in evolutionary historyGenomea full set of genes of a speciesThe east side theoryclaims that eastern side of great rift valley had a much drier climate while the west was a wet jungle The east side had to adapt to the new climate and thus changed while the other did notDownfromtrees hypothesisTrees were farther apart Apes adopt bipedal locomotion Change in posture reduced body exposed to sunWaterbaby hypothesisHardy proposed this Apes foraging through ocean beaches but later abandoned when oceans recededEncephalization Quotient EQ for mammalsIt is the ratio of actual brain size to expected brain sizeNeotenyan adaptation where cortex is the last region of brain to mature Therefore slowing the rate of development that would allow for longer period of cortical cells to be producedSpecies comparisonDualists may assume that both human neuroanatomy and human cognitive processes differ fundamentally from other animalsWhy study nonhuman animalsAnimals and humans have many similarities that can shed light on evolutionConsider the anatomical and behavioral similarities between humans and close relatives Researchers also find comparisons with more distantly related speciesRats are good to study for comparison to human brainsSlugs for neuron interconnections and behaviorFruit flies for genetic basis in behaviorGenes are functional units that control transmissionexpression of traits from one generation to the nextSome animals and humans have a single basic brain planRodent species are closest to primates but differ by small olfactory bulbs and large cerebral cortex Questions addressed by studying nonhuman animalsThere are 3 primary lines of research of neuropsychology with animalsUnderstanding brain mechanismsComparisons across different species in neuropsychology is designed to give an understanding of mechanisms in brain functioningHetzerEgger found that a gene called Pax is responsible for eye development in all animals with sightThe homeobox genes similarly dictate body segmentation in fruitflies as well humansDifferences among modern species are caused by mutations where products of genes interact with products of othersDesigning Animal Models
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