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Canada (162,320)
Psychology (1,899)
PSY344H5 (46)
Chapter 14

Chapter 14 - Sexual Offenders

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Dax Urbszat

NotesFromReadingCHAPTER14SEXUALOFFENDERSPGS376397Nature and Extent of Sexual ViolenceSexual violence is on par with homicide in terms of how perpetrators are vilified by society Adult victims do not report sexual offences because victims often dont feel that the matter is important enough they believe the matter has already been dealt with they feel the matter is too personal or they simply dont want to involve the policeChild victims often to dot report being sexually abused as they are fearful about what will happen to them or to their parents they dont think they will be believed they believe they are in some way to blame for the abuse or they didnt know that it was unacceptableHigh victimization rates are reported among children youth and adult women Definition of Sexual AssaultPrior to 1983 the Criminal Code of Canada convicted a male person of rape when he has sexual intercourse with a female person who is not his wife without her consent section 143Sexual assault became defined as any nonconsenusal sexual act by either a male or female person to either a male or female person regardless of the relationship between the people involvedSexual assault was divided into three levels based on severity issues simple sexual assault max sentence 10 year sexual assault with a weapon or causing bodily harm max sentence 14 years and aggravated sexual assault max sentence is life imprisonment Consequences for Victims Sexual aggression has serious psychological and physical consequences for victims Ie child victims of sexual abuse develop a wide range of short and longterm problems Adult victims of rape also report high levels of stress and fear that often disrupts social sexual and occupational functioning while also generating high levels of anxiety and depressionPhysically up to 30 of rape victims contract sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy results in about 5 of casesPsychologically a wide range of negative consequences have been reportedRape Trauma Syndrome A group of symptoms or behaviours that are frequent aftereffects of having been rapedThe effects of rape identified by the researchers were divided into two phasesoAcute Crisis Phase lasts for a few days to several weeks and the symptoms are often quite severe Symptoms can include very high levels of fear anxiety and depression Victims of rape also often ask questions about why the rape happened to them and they commonly engage in selfblame Heightened levels of distrust and selfdoubt are common reactions oLongTerm Reactions Phase lasts anywhere from a few months to several years A quarter of women who have been raped do not significantly recover even after several years Longterm reactions include the development of phobias such as a fear of being left alone or fear of leaving the house Another longterm reaction is the development of sexual problems and depressionsThe psychological consequences of rape victimization also include PTSD PTSD describes four symptom clusters that occur in response to the traumatic eventoRecurrent involuntary and intrusive distressing memoriesoPersistent avoidance of stimuli oNegative alterations in cognitions and moodsoMarked alterations in arousal and reactivity APA 2013 p 271272Sexual assault is traumatic not only to the victim but also to his or her significant other relative and friends
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