Textbook Notes (363,597)
Canada (158,456)
Psychology (1,867)
PSY344H5 (46)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5 - Eyewitness Testimony

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Dax Urbszat

NotesFromReadingCHAPTER5EYEWITNESSTESTIMONYPGS123153Eyewitness Testimony The Role of MemoryRecall Memory Reporting details of a previously witnessed event or personRecognition Memory Determining whether a previously seen item or person is the same as what is currently being viewed Stages of memoryHow Do We Study Eyewitness Issues The Laboratory SimulationTo study eyewitness memory by using laboratory simulation an unknowing participant views a critical event such as a crime through a slide sequence a video recording or live The participant is unaware that he or she will be questioned about the event until after the event is witnessed The participant witness is asked to describe what happened and the targetperpetrator involved Following the descriptions of what was witnessed the witness may be asked to examine a lineupIndependent VariablesoEstimator Variables Variables that are present at the time of the crime and that cannot be changed Ex age of the witness the amount of lighting the presence of a weapon and whether the witness was intoxicatedoSystem Variables Variables that can be manipulated to increase or decrease eyewitness accuracy Ex procedure used by police to interview the witness or the type of lineup procedure used to present the suspect to the witnessoBoth estimator and system variables can be manipulated in eyewitness laboratory studies Dependent Variables1Recall of the eventcrime and 2 Recall of the perpetratoroOpenEnded Recall Witnesses are asked to either write or orally state all they remember about the event without the officer asking questions Also known as Free NarrativeoDirect Question Recall Witnesses are asked a series of specific questions about the crime or the perpetratoroA witnesss recall of the crime or the perpetrator can be examined for the followingThe amount of information reportedThe type of information reportedThe accuracy of the information reported 3Recognition of the perpetratoroLineUp A set of people presented to the witness who in turn must state whether the perpetrator is present and if so which oneoAnother type of lineup takes the form of a set of voices and the witness is asked to identify the perpetrators voiceoClothing lineups in which the witness examines clothing that may have been worn by the perpetrator sometimes also are usedoA witnesss recognition response can be examined for the followingAccuracy of decisionTypes of errors made Recall MemoryThe primary goal for an officer interviewing an eyewitness is to extract from the witness a complete and accurate report of what happened If an inaccurate information is supplied then an officer may pursue innocent suspects thus reducing the likelihood that the guilty person will be caughtInterviewing EyewitnessesFisher et al studied the techniques police were using to interview eyewitnesses
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