Textbook Notes (362,776)
Canada (158,052)
Psychology (1,851)
PSY344H5 (46)
Chapter 12

Chapter 12 - Assessment and Treatment of Young Offenders

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Dax Urbszat

NotesFromReadingCHAPTER12ASSESSMENTANDTREATMENTOFYOUNGOFFENDERSPGS323348HISTORICAL OVERVIEWthththYouth who committed criminal acts in Canada during the 17 18 and 19 centuries were treated as adult offenders Canada enacted the Juvenile Delinquents Act JDA in 1908 oApplied to children and youth between the ages of 7 and 16 age 1 in some jurisdictions oTerms changed delinquents rather than offenders was used and were considered to commit acts of delinquency such as truancy rather than criminal offenses oA separate court system for youth was established and be as informal as possible oIn serious cases the JDA made it possible for delinquents to be transferred to adult court The JDA was in effect until 1984 when it as replaced with the Young Offenders Act YOAoYouth were to be held responsible for their actions oYOA recognized the need to protect the public from young offenders and that youths should be afforded all the rights as stated in the Canadian Charter of Rights and FreedomoYOA allowed for youth cases to be diverted But in order for diversion to be possible the young offender would have to plead guiltyoOther dispositions absolute charges fine compensation for loss or damaged property restitution to victim prohibition order community service probation and custodyoTwo types of custody availableOpenplacing the youth in a community residential facility group home childcare facility or wilderness campSecureincarcerating the youth in a prison facility oCriticisms of YOA serious violent offences carried relatively short light sentences and raising the minimum age of responsible from age 7 to age 12On April 1 2003 the Youth Criminal Justice Act YCJA replaced the YOA Main objectiveoTo prevent youth crimeoTo provide meaningful consequences and encourage responsibility of behaviour oTo improve rehabilitation and reintegration of youth into the communityExtrajudicial Term applied to measures taken to keep young offenders out of court and out of custody ie giving a warning or making a referral for treatmentA new custodial sentence became available under the YCJA known as the Intensive Rehabilitative Custody and Supervision order IRCS which involves a sentence designed to deal with very serious cases where a mental health issue exits Naming YouthUnder the current YCJA the name of the youth cannot be reported to the public but can be released only under special circumstances Names of victims from youth crime also have their identities protected from publication until consent is provided Judges are able to provide a reprimand ie warning to the youth an intensive support and supervision order an attendance order a deferred custody and supervision order and an intensive rehabilitative custody and supervision order Under the YCJA the transfer process for youth to adult court has been eliminated Instead youth court determines whether the youthful defendant is guilty and can impose adult sentences Under YCJA victims are to be informed of the court proceedings opportunity to participate and the right to access youth court records YOUTH CRIME RATESThe total number of crimes committed by youth has been decreasing for the past few years
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