Textbook Notes (367,974)
Canada (161,538)
Psychology (1,899)
PSY345H5 (68)

exceptionality book notes review.docx

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Stuart Kamenetsky

Chapter 1  Chapter 2  18 , 19 and beginning of 20 century- education for disabled kids was highly segregated -> separate schools or separate classes in public schools or if had severe disabilities they were not educated at all  education for all - the right to education for all kids, regardless of disability, ses, race etc  in 1975 education for all was implemented in usa - education for all handicapped children act (public law 94) education as a privilege not right  beginning of 20 century (1900s) special education was allowed but it was required only in a few states  1930 - special education for kids with mild emotional problems; most were in mental hospitals  1940 - parents wanted their disabled kids to be put into regular classes so they would be socialized with normal peers; parents and educators advocated that disabled be educated in regular classrooms  1950s - many counties had special schools and classes for disabled -> kids still continued to be isolated from their peers without disabilities  segregation was called into question - mainstreaming was developed - kids were put into regular classrooms (allowed to either sink or swim, most sank bc education is developed around average kids)  kenedy - money for programs to prepare special education teachers the right to education  case of brown, kanzas (1954) ->education was affirmed as right and not as privilege; education should be made available to everyone on equal basis  not until 20 years after free public education was available for disabled  1970s - revolution in education th  so for the first 75 years of the 20 century the availability of education for disabled was very selective - was a privilege and not a right  1975 - education for all handicapped children act (public law 94) -> federal law that ensures the right to FAPE (free and appropriate public education) to all kids btw 6 and 21, regardless of type and extent of disability  public law 99 - extended the right to free public education to kids btw 3-5; also developed program for toddlers up to 2 years -> became eligible for assessment and individualized family service plan (ifsp)  in 1990 renamed the education for all handicapped children act to IDEA (individuals with disabilities education act)  zero exclusion principle - no person with disability can be denied services, regardless of the type and extent of their disability  related services - services that are necessary to ensure that the child with disability will benefit from the education - ie slp; transportation, medical help -> IDEA  provisions: o all students are entitled to free and appropriate public education (FAPE)  based on value that every student can learn ****  FAPE is a provision within IDEA that requires every eligible student with disability to be included in public education  no student with disability can be excluded from public education based on disability -> zero exclusion principle o labeling the kid and placement into special education program requires an assessment that is nondiscriminatory and multidisciplinary  test in the native language  use assessment that prevents cultural and racial discrimination - cant give white kid easy test and black kid hard test  assessment must be done using several pieces of info -> the kid could be having problems due to diff reasons o parental involvement includes giving consent for testing and placement of the child and being involved in determining the IEP(individualized education plan); rights of parents:  consent prior to assessment for special education  consent to the educational setting in which the child will be placed  request another assessment of the parent disagrees with school’s assessment and recommendations  participate in decision making regarding the placement and assessment of the child  request educational records  review educational records and challenge info that believe to be misleading or inaccurate or violate privacy the rights are1. to get the parents involved with the committee and 2. protect the child and the family from decisions that could negatively affect them o every child is entitled to IEP that meets the child’s needs; IDEA 2004 requires that IEP must include  IEP - written statement that is the framework for providing free and appropriate public education for every eligible child with disability  statement of present levels of academic achievement and how disability effects performance in general classroom  explanation to the extent that the kid will not participate in regular classroom  statement of measurable annual goals (for kids with alternative assessments- short term objectives)  description of how the child’s progress towards meeting the annual goals will be measured  statement of individual appropriate accommodations that are necessary to measure child’s academic achievement  statement of special services to be provided to the child o every child has the right to be educated in the least restrictive environment (LRE)  LRE means that all student with disabilities have the right to be educated with non disabled peers to the maximum extend appropriate  the school boards are required to create a continuum of least restrictive environment for the children based on their needs  for each child LRE will be diff  LER ranges from least restrictive (most inclusive - ie regular class with support) to most restrictive (least inclusive ie homebound or hospital programs)  least rest env is determined by severity of disability (most important); also- location of services, family values etc  the placement along the continuum will be specified in the child’s IEP individualized education plan (or program) process 1. pre referral -> the attempts are made to help the child in general education  the child is in general education program; might be disruptive or might not learn  early intervention services may be used to support the child who has not been yet identified as needing special education but who needs extra help to succeed in general education class  the accommodations and modifications of the environment very according to the child  ie might sit the child in front of the classroom if the kid is being disruptive  if modifications are successful then referral process might not be necessary  when pre referral take place there is family notification 2. referral -> child is referred for evaluation for special education assistance  if the child doesn’t get better in pre referral stage then normally start referral process  before assessment can be done family has to be notified and provide written consent; if they don’t evaluation cant be done (written family notification and consent for evaluation)  once the family consent is received the assessment can take place 3 assessment - testing; data collection to see if the child is eligible for special education under IDEA 4. identification - special services committee  the committee will consider the results of the assessment  will decide if the child should be labeled with particular disorder  will decide if the kid is eligible for special education services  the kid might be labeled but committee might decide that the regular classroom is more appropriate for the child -> general education is appropriate for child’s needs  if the committee decides that the child needs special education then the moves to next stage 5. analysis of services and placement - special education and related services are required to meet the child’s needs  if the child comes to school with diagnosis already (ie down syndrome) -> skip the previous stages  start talking about the actual placement 6. develop IEP  involve talking about accommodations, modifications, placement, level of least restrictive environment etc  need parental approval 7. annual evaluation of iep *****  see if the expectations that set out for the kid are appropriate 8 terminate (end) iep or revise iep  the condition of the kid coudve stayed the same, worsened (got into accident) or got better -> end or revise iep no child left behind standards and accountability  no child left behind uses standard base approach to improve schools  standard base approach - involves challenging academic standards of knowledge  4 principles o academic achievement is taken as a measure of academic success o emphasizes challenging the standards of academic knowledge o standards should be extended to students for whom expectations were traditionally low o reliance on achievement testing (?)  before it was insured that children get access to free and appropriate public education -> should result in some educational benefit  some educational benefit was later expanded to ensure progress that could be measured for each student  IEP must describe how the disability effects child’s involvement and progress in general curriculum  premise of NCLB o all students can and will learn more than they are currently learning o all students will succeed if schools expect the highest academic standards o if the student doesn’t succeed that school may be accountable for the failure  students with disabilities must have access to o highly qualified teacher o curriculum upon which standards are based o assessments that measure the standards o results that determine how well the school is meeting established performance criteria  disadvantages - lower self esteem if don’t reach the expectations; fear that the bar will be lowered to help kids with disabilities to reach it  highly qualified teacher o if obtained license or passed teacher’s license exam o certified to teach in agiven state and requirements are not waived (abandoned) on some basis  elementary school teachers o have bachelors degree o must demonstrate subject knowledge and teaching skills  middle and secondary (high school) teachers o have bachelors degree o high level of competency of the subject they teach  veteran teachers must have bachelor degree and be held to the same standards as new teachers  title 1schools - public schools that have a sign number of kids who are living at or below poverty line  highly qualified special education teacher has the same meaning as regular teachers in NCLB (have to have certificate as special education teacher)  consultative service - special education teacher works with general education teacher to modify the environment for the child so it meets the child’s needs evidence based special education practices  characteristics of evidence based education practices o individualization  hallmark for special education  developing education experience based on individual needs of each student  general education has been guided by utilitarian approach - greatest good for greatest number  special education is designed to meet the unique needs of every student  using individually based approach special ed teachers need to adjust curriculum in response to the student o intensive instruction  involves  engage students in learning by requiring high rates of responses  match instructions to student’s abilities  provide feedback on the task that the student is expected to complete o teaching of academic, adaptive and functional life skills  in addition to needing individualized and intensive instruction students with disabilities require more structural approach to learning  teaching of explicit skills to students with disabilities require instructions in core academic areas, adaptive skills and functional life skills  functional life skills - practical skills that facilitate person’s involvement in family, school and community life  may include daily living; social development like self determination - the ability to consider options and ability to make appropriate choices  if these skills are not taught in formal instruction than they will not be learned  not all kids are able to learn core academic skills within the time frame dictated by school  ** adaptive fit - the degree to which the student is able to cope with the requirements of school setting and the extent to which school recognizes and accommodates the student; this fit constantly changes; it is compatibility btw the demands of the task and the person’s ability  adaptive instruction - enhances s
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