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Chapter 1

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Stuart Kamenetsky

CHAPTER 1 Textbook Notes – Understanding Exceptionality New Era in Lives of People w. Disabilities  D. Roosevelt (1932) – first president w. a disability (polio)  Measures taken to make sure no one knew Roosevelt was “different” o Disability = sign of weakness  National survey – 80% knew he was paralyzed; o 75% favoured the depiction of him in a wheelchair Historical Perspective on Disability th Up Until the 20 Century  Disabled children – vulnerable to infanticide, slavery, physical abuse, abandonment o Infanticide – control pop growth & ensure only strong survive  Early Greeks & Roman patriarchies – practiced eugenics (belief in improving human species by discouraging reproduction of ppl w. genetic defects/inheritable undesirable traits) o BUT – Egyptians = saw infanticide as a crime;  Many civilization – “deformed children” = sign of weakness, shame, unnecessary burden  Nazi Germany – genocide (planned extermination of “mentally & physically disabled” OPERATION T4… Hitler Era: ppl w. disabilities targeted or the “final solution” o Terminated lives of disabled as means to “purify” human race & out then out of misery” 20 century era – contradictions in societal & gov’t support for ppl w. disabilities + families  On one hand – treatment & education that were denied – became accessible o Schools = offering special classes for slow learners, w. physical disabilities & deaf/blind  In contrast – societal view = negative accusatory o Parents – blamed for genetic inferiority of children & held responsible for not caring for own needs w.o gov’t support o Believed disability was genetic… & “defectiveness” = defile human race Fear of “Genetic” Disability (eugenics scare)  Enforcement of 17 century blue laws – prohibited mental & moral defectives from marrying  Then, legislation expanded to include sterilization  Eugenics scare – o evolved from laws w. marriage & sterilization to planned isolation (not extermination)  society believed – o removing child w. disabilities from family into controlled, large congregate living facility would be best for society, family, child…&& o isolation – no spread of genetic & social deviance + protect society from defective ppl Living Facilities  Large, congregate living facilities – institutions, hospital, colony prison, school, asylum (labels)  Treatment – isolation move: large institutions grew in size o Families – either keeping child @ home w. no medical, educational, social support  This continued for 5 decades & declined further during the Depression of 1930s & 1940s o Funds & human resources = short supply  By 1950s: more than million ppl – committed to mental hospitals/institutions 1 CHAPTER 1 Textbook Notes – Understanding Exceptionality Parental Involvement Throughout 20 century  parents, ppl w. disabilities & family – struggled w. society = apathetic to needs & discriminatory  new parent groups advocating for rights of children w. disabilities –  UCP (united general palsy organization) – funded in 1949  NARC (national association for retarded children) – began in 1950  organized on national level in 1950 && had similar goals –  concerned w. getting accurate info out to public  rights of citizenship for ppl w. disabilities via access to med treat, soc services, educ  Other parent groups followed –  National Society for Autistic Children (1961) &&  Association for Children w. Learning Disabilities (1964) Parent Organizations & Civil Rights Movement: coincided  Civil rights – for ethnic minorities;  SO PO put foundation for stronger federal & state roles –meet individual disabled needs  1956 – (2 yrs after no more segregation in schools)  NARC – called on federal gov’t to expand teaching & research in edu w. mental retard  1960 – congress & state legislatures - engaged w. parents & professionals to improve lives Parent Organizations & John F. Kennedy (Strong Advocate for Institutional Reform)  1961 – parents & professionals – got major boost w. election of F. Kennedy  His sister had intellectual disability –  Elevated needs of ppl with disabilities – major national concern st  1 President’s Committee on MR formed & legislation eventually = many federal initiatives Parent Organization & the Courts: fighting discrimination  1972 – parents of institutionalized – filed lawsuit: ppl w. MR = deprived of right to treatment for skills to live in community & family  Courts viewed institutions: warehouse in atmosphere of psychological & physical deprivation  State – ordered to ensure the ppl in institutions had therapeutic env’t  Lead to – dev’t of fed standards for institutions across country:: rights for disabled (privacy, management of affairs, no physical restraint/isolation, adequate med progrms)  WYATT case, followed by….Halderman vs. Pennhurts State School & Hospital +  Youngberg vs. Romeo + Homeward Bound vs. Hissom Memorial center Parent Organization & Education PARC vs. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania  1971 – parents from PARC (Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Citizens) filled class-action suit & claimed – children were being denied the right to free & appropriate public education  Court – ordered schools to give free public edu to all children w. mental retardation (ages 6-21) Mills Vs. District of Columbia Board of Education : to include all children w. disabilities –  Both milestones to passage of many other legislatures Public Law 94-142 (1975) Passed: Free & Appropriate Public Edu for ALL disabled students  Brought together all pieces of state & fed legislation into national law –  Need parental involvement in edu, multidisciplinary & non-discriminatory tests, edu in least restrictive env’t, dev’t of individualized edu plan for every student st In 21 century: rights of ppl w. disabilities – significant changes  Parent & professional advoc…. ADA (Americans w. Disabilities Act) 1990 – advocacy of 43 mil ppl 2 CHAPTER 1 Textbook Notes – Understanding Exceptionality ADA – Americans w. Disabilities Act (1990)  Section 504 (Vocational Rehab Act) – prohibiting discrimination against ppl w. disabilities  Set the stage for ADA -- the largest legislation since civil rights act (1964) Purpose of ADA  Prevent discrimination of basis of disability in: employment, programs, services provided … by state & local gov’t, goods & services provided by private companies & commercial facilities  Change discrimination & affirm the rights of 50+ mil Americans to participate in community  Prior – no access to: public restrooms, restaurants, successful employment  Due to – architectural & attitudinal barriers WHY the ADA?  Disabled –discrim in: employ, access to public & private accom & services by state + local gov’t  Civil Rights Act – didn’t even mention ppl w. disabilities; no fed protection against discrimination In 2004 –  NOD (national organization on disability) –results on ADA perception after 12 yrs  strong endorsement of landmark civil rights legislation…  77%: aware of ADA – 93% approved what it was trying to accomplish ADA: their definition of Disability  Physical/mental impairment – limits his life in major life activity &&  Experienced discrimination resulting from physical/mental impairment In 2008 – ADA definition of disability expanded  w. passage of ADAAA (American w. disabilities amendments act) –  Clarifies “disability” – show that was discriminated against b.c of actual/perceived impairment (even if impairment doesn’t limit/isn’t perceived to limit major life activity)  prove ONLY that employer thought that they have mental/physical impairment NOT that employer saw them as being limited b.c of disability ADA: Major Provisions (Protection for the Disabled) IN: employment, public service, accommodation, transportation, telecommunications  Employment (public + private w. 15+ ppl) – employers cannot discriminate  Job applications, hiring, firing, advancement, compensation, training, etc.  Transportation – all public transit busses, stations & systems = accessible (by 2010)  If cannot use fixed-route bus service, transit authorities must provide help  Air transportation – under Air Carrier Access Act (not ADA)  Public Accommodation – rest, hotels, retail stores – cannot discriminate  Physical barriers = removed (all facilities = accessible)  If cannot remove – alternative methods providing services need to be offered  Gov’t – state & local agencies: cannot discriminate against qualified disabled ppl  Telecommunication –companies w. telephone service – have to offer it to hearing loss Law specifies –  accommodations – take into account disabled’s needs (test for accom = effectiveness)  effectiveness: can they achieve same level of performance & enjoy equal benefits? 3 CHAPTER 1 Textbook Notes – Understanding Exceptionality Describing People w. Differences Labels –  sociologists: ppl who don’t follow society’s expectations  edu & psych: to identify + provide services for ppl w. learning, physical, behavioural diff  physicians: distinguish sick vs. healthy From ADA standpoint (legal perspective)  labels = identify who is eligible for (entitled to) government assisatance & support Common Terminology Using Labels to…  describe ppl: disorder, disability, handicap (not synonymous) o disorder (broadest): general abnormality in mental, physical/psychological function o disability (more specific): loss of physical functioning – sight, hearing, mobility – OR difficulty in learning & social adjustment which significantly interferes w. typical growth o handicap: limitation imposed by env’t demands & ability to adapt/adjust to demands  when env’t doesn’t accommodate, disability becomes a handicap (no walking)  Other Labels: Exceptional –
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