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Psychology (1,867)
PSY345H5 (68)
Chapter 1

Chapter One - PSY345

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Stuart Kamenetsky

Chapter One- Understanding Exceptionalities in the 21 century st  Franklin Roosevelt was disabled with polio  Aristotle said children with disabilities shouldn’t be allowed to live  Disabled children were prone to infanticide, abandonment & physical abuse  Infanticide- looked at as a means of controlling population growth  Early Greeks & Romans – practiced Eugenics – discourages people with genetic defects to reproduce; also exterminated mentally and physically disabled  20 century’s contradictions: – Education and treatment became more accessible – On the other hand, societal view of disabilities became more negative. Parents were blamed for genetic inferiority of children and people were scared of disabilities passing from one gen to another  Enforcement of Blue Laws – prohibiting mental people from marrying  Sterilization- surgically disabling one from reproducing  Section 504  Americans with Disabilities Act [ADA]  legislation that provides mandate to end discrimination against disabled people in private sector employment, transportation & public accommodations.  Civil Rights Act of 1964- prohibits discrimination on basis of race, sex, religion or nationality  How ADA defines a person with disability: – Physical/mental impairment that substantially limits him/her in some major life activity – Having experienced discrimination because of this impairment  Reasonable accommodations- ensures disabled people have a fair chance of participation. Ex: transportation, employment, telecommunications & government  Disorder- general abnormality in mental, physical or psychological functioning  Disability- more specific than a disorder; associated with loss of physical functioning [loss of sight/hearing] OR difficulty in learning and social adjustment that interferes with growth & development  Handicap- limitation imposed on a person by the environment and the person’s capacity to cope with it  Exceptional- individual whose mental/physical/behavioral performance deviates from the average [higher OR lower]  Labels: – Positive OR negative – Labels communicate whether a person meets expectations of the culture – Same label could have different meanings within a culture. Ex: a student who always follows rules is labeled by her teachers as being ‘conformist’ [positive label] BUT her class-mates think she’s a ‘brown-noser’ [negative label] – Labels are based on ideas NOT facts – They help identify specific needs of a particular group of people  Three approaches to describe Human Differences I. Developmental: typical development is described by observing large number of individualistic characteristics that occur frequently at a specific age. Labels come when you compare an individual’s growth to average kids growth [delayed or advance
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