Chapter 11 - Autism Spectrum Disorder
1. Autism: A pervasive developmental disorder with onset prior to age 3, characterized by
qualitatively impaired social interactive and social communicative skills along with restricted and
repetitive repertoire of behaviour, interests and activities.
2. Savant syndrome: A rare and extraordinary condition in which unusual skills are performed,
usually in one of five areas: music, art, calculating, mathematics and mechanical or spatial skills,
characterized by obsessive preoccupation with specific terms or memorization of facts, trivia,
sequences, or patterns that are in stark contrast to the developmental level of the individual,
ranging from splinter skills to prodigious savant skills.
3. Asperger's syndrome: a condition that shares unusual social interactions and behaviours with
autism, but historically has no general language delay.
4. Autism spectrum disorders: a range of functioning among many dimensions related to social
communicative and social interactive functioning with impairments in repertoire of behaviour.
Typically considered to be autism; Asperger's syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder,
not otherwise specified.
5. Pervasive developmental disorders: an umbrella term to describe disorders that are within the
6. Echolalia: imitation or repetition of words that have been spoken, either immediate or delayed.
7. Stereotypic behaviour: behaviour or stereotypy involving repetitive movements such as rocking,
hand flicking or object manipulation
8. Self-stimulation: repetitive body movements used to stimulate one's senses. Often colloquially
referred to as "STIMMING."
9. Preservation: an extreme focus on circumscribed interests, topics or activities.
10. Etiology: the cause or reason a condition occurs
11. Augmentative and alternative communication: the use of aided and unaided strategies (such as
communication devices, sign language, gestures, written language) to communicate wants and
needs and to transfer information Definitions
Chapter 12 - Severe and Multiple Disabilities
1. Severe and Multiple Disabilities: disabilities that involve significant physical, sensory,
intellectual, and or social-interpersonal performance deficits.
2. Dual Diagnosis: identification of both serious emotional problems and intellectual disabilities in
the same individual.
3. Dual sensory impairments: a condition, characterized by both vision and hearing sensory
impairments (deaf-blindness), which can result in severe communication problems
4. Deaf-blindness: A disorder involving simultaneous vision and hearing impairments
5. Adaptive skills: Conceptual, social and practical skills that facilitate an individual's ability to
function in community, family and school settings
6. Epilepsy: a condition that produces brief disturbances in brain function, resulting in seizures of
7. Spasticity: a condition that involves involuntary contractions of various muscle groups
8. Athetosis: a condition characterized by constant, contorted twisting motions in the wrists and
9. Hypotonia: poor muscle tone
10. Catheterization: the process of introducing a hollow tube (catheter) into body cavities to drain
fluid, such as introducing a tube into an individual's bladder to drain urine
11. Gastronomy tube feeding: the process of feeding a person through a rubber tube inserted into
12. Respiratory ventilation: use of mechanical aid (ventilator) to supply oxygen to an individual with
13. Authentic assessment: an alternative basis used