chapter 2 notes
A changing era in the lives of students with disabilities:
- in the past education for disabled was segregated where as now now this exclusive rule is being
-Salamanca Statement by UN (1994):
Every child has unique characteristics, interests, abilities and needs
Education system should be designed to cover the wide and diverse variety of
characteristics and needs.
Special education children must have the right to general education that should
accomodate them by providing a child centered instructional program.
Regular schools with inclusive orientation are the best at eliminating
discrimination and building inclusive communities.
- Education for all by UN (World summit for children. 2001): called schools to promote access
to education for every child with disability allowing them to better transition to the adult life.
Origin of Special Education in the United States:
- It wasnt always inclusive. Its pretty recent, starting from 1975.
Early special education programs:
-for the last three centuries, children with disabilities had little access to education, health care
-18-19 century: institutions that were separate from public schools were established for "slow
-students with substantial behavioural and learning differences were excluded from public
Education as a privilege but Not a Right:
- 1920-1960: special education was allowed not mandated.
-Early 1930: Educational services were provided to children with mild disorders but those with
serious ones were still kept in the mental hospital.
- Later 1930s: Special education classes for disabled children were expanded.
-1950s: separate schools for disabled children with specially designed elevators, ramps, modified
doors, toilets and desks.
- During 1940s debate began: special school vs general ed. Parents and teachers advocated that it
would be better placing them in a setting where they can integrate with typical students.
- Research continued through out 1950s when the segregated schools began springing up in
several countries, examining the value of special classes. the research concluded in development
of new model called mainstreaming. In mainstreaming the child could remain in the general class
program for majority of the school day receiving special education when and where it was
John F Kennedy and the Expanding role for National Government:
-1960s: significant changes in the education of students with disabilities
- JKF expanded the role of government. The universities were funded to prepare special
education teachers, the bureau of education for handicapped in the office of education (office of
special ed and rehabilitative services in US dept of education) was created and new projects were
funded nationwide to meet the educational needs of disabled kids in public schools.
The Right to Education: - The right to education for children with disabilities came about as a part of a larger social
movement, the Civil rights movements where the discriminations in employment, housing,
access to public facilities and public education was brought into the public's eye.
- In Brown c. Board of education of Topeka, Kansas (1954) Education was reaffirmed as a right
rather than a privilege in USA.
-1970s, 20 years after the civil rights movement, the major state and federal laws were enacted to
reaffirm the rights of students with disabilities to free public education.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA):
- the education for All Handicapped Children Act (Public Law 94-142): Federal law that made
free public education to all students regardless of the extend of handicap/ disability.
- Public Law 99-147: Extended the rights of education in the Public law 94-142 to children ages
3-5. An optional state program was also established for toddlers and infants
-Individualized Family Service Plan: A plan for services for infants and their families. Included
statements regarding the child's present developmental level, family's strength and needs, major
outcomes of the plan, specific intervention systems to accomplish outcomes, date of initiation
and duration of services, and a plan for transition into public schools.
- Individuals with disabilities Act: The new name for The education for all Handicapped children
Act. It was renamed to reflect people-first language and to get rid of the word handicap.
What are special education and related services?
- IDEA advocates that public schools provide special education and related services (necessary
to ensure benefits from educational experience) to all students that qualify regardless of the
extent of their disability (zero-exclusion principle)
- Special education is specifically designed instructions provided to parents without any cost in
- Related Services have the purpose of allowing a beneficial educational experience. Services
may include: special transportation, speech pathology, psychological services, physical and
occupational therapy, recreation, rehabilitation counseling, social work and medical services.
Who is Eligible for Special Education and Related Services?
1- Any student identified as having one of the disability conditions identified by the federal law
or a corresponding condition defined in the state's federal rules and regualtion. (mental
retardation, hearing impairments, speech or language impairments, visual impairments, serious
emotional disturbance, orthopedic impairment, autism, traumatic brain injury, multiple
disabilities and other health impairments and other learning disabilities).
2- Student demonstrate a need for specialized instruction and related services in orer to receive
an appropriate education. these needs are determined by parents and professionals.
What are the major provisions of IDEA?
1- FAPE (Free and Appropriate Public Education)
2-Schools must use non-discriminatory and multidisciplinary assessments
3- Parents have right to get involved in decisions regarding their sons and daughters
4- Every student must have an Individualized Education Program (IEP)
5- Right to receive education with non-disabled peers.
FAPE: Every student has a right to free public education designed to meet their unique needs.
Zero exclusion principle. According to supreme court, appropriate education includes specially
designed instructions and related services that are individually designed to provide educational
benefits. "some education benefit" standard is the ruling that the state doesnt need to provide the
ideal education but the most beneficial education. Non-Discriminatory and Multidisciplinary Assessment: IDEA advocates the use of
nondiscriminatory ways of testing procedures in labelling and placing students in special
education. These provisions are:
a) the testing of students in their native language, whenever possible
b) the use of evaluation procedures selected and administered to prevent cultural or racial
c) validation of assessment tools for the purpose for which they are being used
d) Assessment by the team of school professionals, using several pieces of information to
formulate a placement decision.
Before students were too often placed in special ed program due to lack of information. This
caused disproportionate number of students being in special ed (belonging to specific race, SES)
Parental Safeguards and Involvement: The IDEA gave parents the following rights:
-give consent before the child is assessed
- give consent to the educational setting in which the child will receive special education and
- request independent educational assessment (if they find the school assessment inappropriate)
- request education assessment at public expense (if not satisfied with the one by school)
- To participate on the comittee that decides the assessment, placement and programming for the
-To inspect and review educational records and challenge information that is misleading,
-To request a copy of information from the child's educational record.
-To request hearing concerning the school's proposal or refusal to initiate or change the
identification, educational assessment or placement of the child or the provision of FAPE.
The intention here is to:
1) Get the parents more involved in decisions regarding their child
2) Protect the child and the family from decisions that can have