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Canada (161,799)
Psychology (1,899)
PSY345H5 (68)
Chapter 1

PSY345 Chapter 1 Book Notes.docx

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Stuart Kamenetsky

PSY345 CHAPTER 1: UNDERSTANDING EXCEPTIONALITY IN THE 21   ST CENTURY PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT - People in the 20 century were apathetic (not emotionally supportive) and discriminatory to disabled people, their parents and families - Therefore new parent groups advocating for rights of their children began to organize at National level in 1950’s – UCP- United Cerebral Palsy Organization, National Association for Retarded Children (NARC) - Goals of the organizations: to bring accurate info to public regarding disabled people- ensure full citizenship rights through access to medical treatment, social services, education - Other parents followed the lead- National Society for Autistic Children (NSAC- 1961), National Association for Children with Learning Disability (NACLD- 1964) - This coincided with civil rights movement in 1950- parents seized opportunity to lay foundations of stronger federal & state roles in meeting needs - 1956, U.S. Supreme Court –separate education for coloured people unequal, & NARC called for federal gov’t to expand teaching and researching in education of children with mental retardation - 1960- Congress & state legislature, actively involved in concern for improving lives of disabled people - 1961 – election of President John F Kennedy – who also had a sister with intellectual disability brought major boost to parents & professional s concerned for the disabled children - Kennedy revealed & elevated needs of the people to a major national concern - First-ever President’s Committee on Mental Retardation (now PC for Intellectual Disabilities) formed – led to many federal initiatives on behalf of disabled people - Kennedy strong advocate for institutional reform reorient programs to a community centered approach - 1972- parents of institutionalized persons in Alabama filed law suit that mentally disabled being deprived of right to treatment that would provide skills to live in community and family settings – want a therapeutic env- mandate specific rights to people with disability- privacy, managing own affairs, freedom from physical restraint & isolation, adequate medical programs - reform education- 1971- Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (PARC): filed class-action lawsuit claiming children denied free & appropriate public education on basis of mental retardation therefore court ordered Pennsylvania schools to provide free public education to all mentally retarded children ages 6-21 then expanded to all children with disabilities - 1975- federal legislation for free and appropriate public edu for all children with disabilities - Passage of public law 94-142, brought together state and federal legislations into national law requiring parental involvement in edu of their children, multidisciplinary & nondiscriminatory testing , education in least restrictive env, dev of individualized education plan for every student AMERICANS WITH DISABILITY ACT (ADA) 1990 - Vocational Rehabilitation Act (section 504): no person with disability can be prevented access to, benefits of, or discriminated under any program or activity provided by an entity/institution that receives federal financial assistance - Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in 1990 - ADA: **CIVIL rights legislation that provides mandate to end discrimination against people with disabilities or on basis of disability in employment, programs, all public services provided by state and local gov’t, public & private accommodations, transportation, & telecommunication, all goods and services provided by private companies, and commercial facilities - **Purpose was to allow more than 50 million Americans with disabilities to be involved in the life of their community - ** gives civil rights protection to disabled similar to those provided to people on the basis, of race, sex, national origin, colour, age & religion - NEEDS FOR ADA: 1) People with disability, regardless of learning to live independently, there was no guarantee that they would have access to community services, public & private services & accommodations (rest rooms, restaurants, hotels, theatres, grocery store), & successful employment & services offered through state and local gov’ts due to architectural and attitudinal barriers 2) Historic Civil Rights Act of 1964, did not mention people with disability – no federal protection against discrimination ADA DEFINITION OF DISABILITY 1) Having mental or physical impairment that substantially limits major life activity 2) Being discriminated against due to physical & mental disability Federal Regulation definition of mental or physical impairment: 1) Physiological disorder, cosmetic disfigurement, anatomical loss that affect one or more body system: neurological, respiratory, special sense organs, cardiovascular, reproductive, digestive, endocrine, skin, musculoskeletal 2) Mental or psychological disorder – mental retardation, emotional illness, organic brain syndrome, specific learning disabilities 2008: expanded ADA to ADAAA (Americans with disabilities Amendment Act) – person only has to show that person is discriminated against because of actual or perceived impairment even if it doesn’t limit major life activity or perceived to do so- only have to show that employer believed he or she has mental or physical impairment MAJOR PROVISIONS OF ADA: - U.S. department of justice has to ensure that provision are enforced - REASONABLE ACCOMODATIONS: requirement within ADA to ensure that person with disability has equal chance of participation o Intent to create “fair & level playing field” for them by taking into account all needs of each individual resulting from their disability o Principal test of effectiveness: - ensure that person with disability can achieve same level or performance, enjoy same benefits o Arranged in areas of employment, telecommunications, and transportation MAJOR PROVISIONS: 1) EMPLOYMENT: employer cannot discriminate during employment practices (hiring, job application procedures, firing, advancement, compensation, training, other terms, conditions & privileges of employment) a. Recruitment, advertising, layoff, leaves, fringe benefits, all other employment-related activities b. Law applies to businesses with 15 or more employees 2) TRANSPORTATION: accessibility for disabled in public transit busses, bus and train stations, rail system a. Transit authorities provide transportation services to disabled who can’t used fixed-route bus services b. All Amtrack stations must be accessible to people with disability c. Air Centre Access Act covers discrimination by air carriers in areas other than employment 3) PUBLIC ACCOMODATION: restaurants, hotels, retail stores cannot discriminate a. No physical barriers in existing facilities if removing readily achievable, if not then alternative methods should be used b. All new constructions and alterations of facilities must be accessible 4) GOVERNMENT: state & local agencies can’t discriminate against qualified individuals with disability a. All gov’t facilities, services, & communications should be accessible 5) TELECOMMUNICATIONS: all companies that offer telephone services to general public must offer telephone relay services to individuals with hearing loss who use telecommunication devices or similar equipment DESCRIBING PEOPLE WITH DIFFERENCES DISORDER: general abnormality in mental, psychological, & physical functioning – disturbances in normal functioning DISABLED: condition caused by loss of physical functioning & difficulty with learning and social adjustment which significantly interferes with typical growth and development HANDICAP: limitation imposed on individual by demands of environment – related to the ability of individual to adjust or adapt to those demands - Has had a negative meaning: cap in hand- had to beg on streets for survival EXCEPTIONAL: describes an individual whose physical, intellectual, & behavioural performance significantly varies from what is considered normal or typical- either higher or lower - Receive benefits from individualized assistance, support, accommodations in school and community settings - G IFTED/TALENTED : extraordinary abilities in one or more area - LEARNING D ISABILITY: 1or more of person’s basic psychological processes deficient in understanding and using language - INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY: substantial limitations in functioning – significantly sub average intellectual functioning concurrent with related limitations in 2 or more adaptive skills – manifested prior to age 18 DEAF: individuals who have hearing losses greater than 75-80dB – have vision as their primary input, cannot understand speech through ear LABELLING: to describe “differences” in people who vary significantly from what is considered “typical” or normal - Communicate whether person meets expectations of culture - Some labels have dif meaning within culture – conformist vs teacher’s pet - Often based on ideas not facts - Basis for developing and providing services to people, but it promotes stereotyping, discrimination and exclusion WHO USES LABELLING AND WHY? - Sociologists: to describe people who do not follow society’s expectations - Psychologists and Educators: To identify & provide special educational services for students with learning, physical, or behavioural differences - Physicians: differentiate the healthy from the sick - Legal perspective: who qualifies/is eligible for government support and services - Protect children with have special education needs – classmates more willing to accept his/her behaviour - Opens door to special programs, useful info, special technology and equipment, financial assistance - Useful info they provide professionals in communicating effectively with each other - Common ground for evaluating research findings - Identify specific needs of individual – degree of needs & set priority for services when societal resources limited 3 APPROACHES TO DESCRIBE NATURE & EXTENT OF
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