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Chapter 2

PSY345H5 Chapter 2: EDUCATION FOR ALL (PGS. 24-49)

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Stuart Kamenetsky

Notes From ReadingCHAPTER 2 EDUCATION FOR ALL PGS 2449A Changing Era in the Lives of Students with DisabilitiesThe view that children with disabilities should be excluded from school is being replaced with the call to provide an educational opportunity for every child Ex in the 1994 Salamanca Statement issued by the United Nations UN with the support of 92 different countries The Salamanca Statement affirms thatoEvery child has unique characteristics interests abilities and learning needsoEducation systems should be designed and educational programs should be implemented to take into account the wide diversity of characteristics and needsoThose with special educational needs must have access to regular schools that should accommodate them within a childcentered instructional programoRegular schools with this inclusive orientation are the most effective means of combating discriminatory attitudes creating welcoming communities building an inclusive society and achieving education for all The UN further strengthened its strong view on education for all during the World Summit for Children calling for school to promote access to education for every child with a disability Schools are responsible for every student from the most academically capable to those in need of specialized services and supports Origins of Special Education in the United StatesThe goal of education for all is full participation for everyoneregardless of race cultural background socioeconomic status physical disability or intellectual challenges It wasnt until 1975 that this value was translated into practice for all students with disabilities Early Special Education ProgramsIn most of the last three centuries many families who had a child with a disability were unable to get help for their most basic needs such as medical and dental care social services or education ththIn 18 and 19 centuries educational services consisted of programs that were usually separate from the public schools for those described as slow learners or had hearing or sight lossStudents with very substantial learning and behaviour differences were excluded from public education entirely ie segregated educationEducation as a Privilege but Not a RightFrom 1920 to 1960 most states merely allowed for special education they did not mandate it Educational services to children with mild emotional disorders ie discipline problems were initiated in the early 1930s but mental hospital continued to be the only alternative for most children with severe emotional problems Special classes for children with physical disabilities expanded in the 1930s separate schools for these children became very popular during the ate 1950s with designed elevators ramps and modified doors toilets and desks During 1940s educators and parents began to advocate that these students be educated in a school setting that would promote social interaction with typical nondisabled peers By the 1950s many countries around the world sought to expand education programs for students with disabilities in special schools and classes Many health care and social services professionals were advocating on behalf of individuals with disbailities thus enriching our knowledge regarding effective programs and services For the most part children with disabilities continued to be educated in a school setting that isolated them from peers without disabilities John F Kennedy and the Expanding Role of National GovernmentPresident John F Kennedy expanded the role of the US government providing financial support to university programs for the preparation of special education teachers The Bureau of Education for the Handicapped BEH in the Office of Education was created as a clearing house for information at the federal level
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