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Chapter 10

Chapter 10- detailed (PSY345)

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Stuart Kamenetsky

PSY345 Chapter 10Communication Disorders Communication is a very integral part of our daily livesCommunicationexchange of ideas opinions facts between senders and receiversSender composes and transmits a message and a receiver decodes and understands the messageSpeechaudible representation of language It IS possible to have language without speech such as sign language and how deaf people communicate Structure of LanguageSeveral major componentsphonology syntax morphology semanticspragmaticsSystem of speech sounds that an individual utters Rules regarding how sounds can be used andPhonologycombined Syntax The rules governing sentence structure the way the sequence of words and combined into phrases and sentencesThe form and internal structure of wordstransformation of words in terms of areas such as tense Morphologyand numberGrammar Constituted from combination of syntax and morphology Semantics Represents the understanding of language the component most directly concerned with meaning Pragmatics Component of language that represents the rules that govern the choice of codes to be used when communicatingIncludes processes such as turn taking initiating maintaining and ending a conversation Language DevelopmentYoung children advance through preverbal stage to the use of words in sentences Initial verbal output crying associated with discomfort hunger pain soiled or wet2 months Baby coos and criesVerbally expressing reaction to pleasure and discomfort 36 months Begin to babble make consonant and vowel sounds Make sounds alone experimenting with their sound making Child picks up conversation of father and mother and babbles incoherently which the parents perceive as mama dada As time progresses child uses different tones and vocal intensities that are usually only understood by the immediate family Interaction of parents and children can enhance speech development praise in excited tones hugs for word approximations 9 and 14 monthsBaby actual first words Words involve echoing or mimicking response based on vocalizations of those nearby
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