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PSY352H5 (15)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5 study guide

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Robert Gerlai

Ch. 5 Communication Key Points -in the context of animal behavior communication is the sharing of information between individuals -exactly how communication is transferred will depend upon the machinery available to the individual, upon the environment through which the transfer will take place, and upon the evolutionary history of the animals involved -although there will be occasions when communicating individuals share information in good faith, there will also be occasions when they attempt to deceive on another What is communication? -So what is shared when animals communicate? Information. When they communicate they transmit and receive signals, units of information A Question of Intent -The word intent in the sense of a voluntary action (voluntary intent). -evolutionary intent: the execution of a behavior that the individual does not choose to exhibit, but which is performed as a result of natural selection (may also be referred to as involuntary intent) - Ex. As you walk past someone you dont like, you dont wave to them but you involuntarily flick your eyebrows up. -Involuntary communication of intent (?) -Ex. When your brake while driving your letting the drivers behind you know your stopping or slowing even though your intent is to stop or slow down. Communication without signals? - Animals do gain info through the observation of other behaviors that are performed by animals but which have not evolved for this purpose (ex. Utilize cues) -example: a pigeon that sees a flock of other pigeons feeding in a field might gain info about the suitability of the field as a feeding site and join them. It did not however gain this www.notesolution.cominformation as a result of communication between itself and the members of the flock Honesty and Dishonesty -examples: when u brake the red light comes up and informs of braking (honest) -examples: when u flash your signal its only honest if you actually turn that way after the signal but it will be dishonest if you dont end up turning Ants and snakes - ants lay down a pheromone trail to let other ants to know where to go home or to food -snakes that prey on ants can pick up on this scent -key point the ants dont mean to tell the snakes where they are The evolution and design of signals -some animals use sound, chemicals, touch, vibration, visual signals, andor body postures Selective pressures and the evolution of signals. -Selective pressures that operate during evolution of a signal - Not all signal types will stimulate the sensory systems of the receiver to the same extent -the environment though which signaling is to occur will strongly influence the design of a signalafter all not all signal types will travel from sender to receiver with equal ease. - The interests of the signaler and receiver will not always coincide, selective pressures might favor the a dishonest signal on the part of a sender, but similar pressures acting on the standpoint of the receiver might favor honesty Frog semaphore - Precisely the methods of communications that are used by one species will depend in a large part upon the environment in which they communicate but the method must also depend to an extent upon the equipment available to the individual. -Most species of frog and toad croak at one another as a form of social communication -However one species, the Panamanian golden frog lacks an essential component of the machinery required for acoustic communication (has no tympanic middle ear. Otherwise its www.notesolution.com
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