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PSY354H5 (39)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Notes

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Ayesha Khan

Chapter 3: Page 59-85 (p60) Vulva is the female external genitalia Mons veneris is the front-most component of the vulva: a mound of fatty tissue covering the pubic symphysis Pubic symphysis is the junction of the left and right pubic bones, the front-most elements of the skeleton The public hair helps vaporize odors that arise in specialized sweat glands, similar to those in the armpits, which may act as pheromones (p61) Labia majora (outer lips) are the outer lips, which extend from the mons  The skin of the labia majora is often darker than the skin elsewhere, ad it is erotically sensitive, especially on the inner sides of the labia Labia minora (inner lips) are located between the labia majora and immediately flanking the vestibule  Meet at the front forming the clitoral hood (covers the clitoris) and the area encircled by the labia is called the vestibule (potential space between the left and right labia minora)  Supplied with glands, blood vessels, and nerve endings that are very erotically sensitive (p63) Labioplasty is the plastic surgery on the labia minora, usually to reduce the size Within the vestibule are three important structures: the clitoris, urethral opening, and the vaginal opening, as well as two glands called Bartholin’s glands Clitoris is an erectile organ in females who external portion is located at the junction of the labia minora, just in front of the vestibule  External portion of the clitoris is the glans which is a terminal knob of the clitoris or penis (knob of tissue)  Shaft of the clitoris is about 2-3 cm long, runs upward from the glans, under the hood  Both the shaft and the glans are erectile (capable of becoming larger and firmer during sexual arousal) (p63) The erectile tissue within the clitoral shaft consists of two corpora cavernosa (two elongated structures within the penis or clitoris that extend backward into the pelvic floor) The erectile tissue within the glans consists of a single corpus spongiosum (single midline structure in both sexes) Ointment-like secretions from the underside of the clitoral hood lubricate the motion of the hood over the clitoris but as they dry and mix with dead cells and bacteria they form smegma The crura is an internal extension of a corpus cavernosum of the clitoris or penis which gives it a wishbone structure  7 cm long, partially enwraps the urethra Vestibular bulbs are erectile structures beneath the labia minora – internal portions of the clitoris Ischiocavernosus muscle is one of the muscles that attach to the internal portions of the penis and clitoris, which assists with erection and male ejaculation Bulbospongiosus muscle is a muscle that attaches to the base of the clitoris or penis and assists with erection and male ejaculation (p64) Erection is the expansion and stiffening of the clitoris, penis, or nipples in reponse to sexual stimulation or fantasy During erection, shaft of clitoris becomes firmer but glans remains soft because it is not restricted by tissue Female circumcision is any of several forms of ritual cutting or excision of parts of the female genitalia  Prevalent in 29 countries, most of them in Africa, particularly associated with Islam  Three types, least invasive is the sunnah – removal/incision of clitoral hood  Clitoridectomy is the excision of the entire clitoral glans, along with glans and parts of the labia minora  Infibulation is the most invasive and removes the entire labia minora and inner parts of labia majora, and a full clitoridectomy (p65) The vaginal opening (introitus – usually covered early in life by the hymen, which is a membrane, ruptured by the first coitus or by other means) Imperforate hymen is a hymen that completely closes the introitus The opening of the urethra (canal that conveys urine from the bladder to the urethral opening, serves for the discharge of ejaculatory fluids) lies between the vaginal opening and the clitoris Bartholin’s glands lie on either side of the vaginal opening, just inside the labia minor and secrete a few drops of fluid prior to orgasm (p66) Periuneum is the region of skin between the anus and the scrotum or vulva The pelvic floor is a muscular sling that underlies and supports the pelvic organs The Pubococcygeus muscle stiffens the walls of the vagina during sex, increasing sexual sensation, contract to prevent urinary leakage and fecal leakage  Associated with Kegels The female reproductive tract takes the shape of a “T,” where the stem is formed by the vagina, cervix, and body of the uterus, and the arms of the “T” are formed by the fallopian tubes The reproductive tract is the internal anatomical structure in either sex that form the pathway by gametes In a woman who is not aroused, the vagina is a muscular tube extending 8-10 cm form the vestibule to the uterine cervix The vaginal wall is highly elastic and consists of three layers: a thin cellular lining (mucosa), and intermediate muscular layer, and an outermost fibro-elastic layer The vagina is normally inhabited by large numbers of “friendly” bacteria – specifically, lactobacilli – which convert sugars to lactic acid  Surface of the vagina is usually mildly acidic (pH 4.0-5.0) which helps prevent the growth of harmful bacteria Candidiasis is a fungal infection of the vagina, also called a yeast infection  Occurs when the fungal organisms overgrow, causing vaginal wall inflammation  Can develop due to frequent douching – rinsing out of the vagina (p68) Bacterial vaginosis is a condition in which the normal microorganisms of the vagina are replaced by other species, causing discomfort and a foul-smelling discharge (p69) Grafenberg spot (G spot) is a controversial area of increased erotic sensitivity on or deep within the front wall of the vagina  Front wall of the vagina, about 3-5cm from the vaginal entr
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