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Chapter 2

Chapter 2.docx

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Brett Beston

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Chapter 2 sex and evolutionEvolution the change in the genetic makeup of living populations over timeIndividuals within a single species differ slightly from one anotherDifferences are heritableCircumstances that favour a certain trait will be passed onNatural selection the survival and reproduction of those individuals that are best adapted to their environmentMain ingredient of evolution is time37 billion years since first lifeGeneA stretch of DNA that is transcribed as a functional unitunit of inheritance DNA linear molecule that forms the chemical bases of genes in all species except some viruses Conjugation contact between two bacteria accompanied by the transfer of a short stretch of DNA from one to anotheroAffects humans by offering a means by which genes conferring resistance to antibiotics can pass from one strain of bacteria to another complicating our efforts to treat infectious diseasesEukaryotean organism whose cells contain nucleioAppeared 23 billion years agosingle celledex Amoeba o15 billion years agomulti celledoEukaryote animals diversified in the Cambrian explosion 545 million years agooEukaryote cells divide by mitosis oNearly all have the capability of sexual reproductionAsexual reproductionreproduction in which all the offsprings genes are inherited from a single parentgenetically identicaloParthenogenesis a sexual reproduction from an unfertilized ovumvirgin birthSexual reproduction reproduction in which the offspring inherits genes from both parentsoFusion of gametes germ cell each contributes chromosomes to the new organism oGametes are usually haploid contain half the number of chromosomes contained in the regular diploid cells Haploid gametes produced by meiosis
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