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Chapter 7

PSY354H5 Chapter 7: Gender

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Brett Beston

NotesFromReadingCHAPTER7GENDERPGS190217GENDER IS A CENTRAL ASPECT OF PERSONHOODGender The collection of psychological traits that differ between males and females Gender Identity A persons subjective sense of being male or female Sexual Orientation The direction of a persons sexual feelings toward persons of the same sex the other sex or both sexGENDER RESEARCH HAS EMERGED FROM A HISTORY OF SEXISMIn 1792 it was almost universally accepted that only men had the intellect personality and moral qualities requires for public life Womens qualities were suited only to nurturing and sustaining roles within the family Stereotypes still influence views of gender even within the academic community Margaret Mead wrote an influential book entitled Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies where she described three societies in New Guinea oAmong Mundugumor both men and women were masculine by Western standardsoAmong Arapesh both men and women were feminineoAmong the Chambri gender was actually reversed from what Western societies are familiar with Women were masculine and men were feminineGENDER IDENTITY MAY BE DISCORDANT WITH ANATOMICAL SEXTransgender Having a gender identity that is discordant with ones anatomical sexGender Role The expression of gender identity in social behaviour Research indicates that gender identity may have a more blurred distribution in the general population than is captured by a simple malefemale dichotomyMEN AND WOMEN DIFFER IN A VARIETY OF COGNTIIVE AND PERSONALITY TRAITSCognitive Related to the aspects o the mind that process knowledge or information Men outperform women in some visuospatial skills such as the ability to mentally rotate 3D objects targeting accuracy and navigationWomen outperform men on tasks involving memorization of the location of objects fine manipulation and some verbal skills such as verbal memory and fluency Personality The collection of mental and behavioural traits especially those related to emotions and attitudes that characterizes an individualoMales score higher than women on written tests of aggressiveness show more verbal and physical aggression in reallife situations and more likely to commit violent crimesoWomen are more likely to express aggression through indirect nonphysical means such as malicious gossipoWomen are more interested in peoplerelated activities and occupations men have more thingrelated interestsDifferences in Sexuality Include Attitudes Toward Casual Sex Jealousy and Frequency of MasturbationCasual or uncommitted sexoMen express far more permissive attitudes than women regarding casual sex encounters are more desirous of engaging in such encounters and make more attempts to do soSex partnersoWomen are attracted to older partners whereas men are attracted to younger partners oWomen are more concerned than men with their partners status or wealth men are more concerned than women with their partners physical attractiveness but not always trueoMen are more interested in visual sexual stimulipornographyJealousy
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