Textbook Notes (363,452)
Canada (158,372)
Psychology (1,867)
PSY354H5 (39)
Chapter 12

PSY354H5 Chapter 12: Contraception and Abortion

11 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Mississauga
Brett Beston

NotesFromReadingCHAPTER12CONTRACEPTIONANDABORTIONPGS356397Birth Control has a Long HistoryIn the ancient world birth control was accomplished largely through the neglect abandonment or outright killing of unwanted babies Oral contraceptives the Pill was introduced for women in the 1960sOral contraceptives which contain sex steroids were so effective that they almost eliminated the fear of unwanted pregnancy for many women and thus helped spur the sexual revolutionFeminists led the Campaign to Legalize ContraceptionthAt least until the end of the 19 century contraception was viewed by many as morally offensive because it subverted the natural or divinely function of sex procreation this is still the official position of the Roman Catholic Church todaythMargret Sanger led the struggle to legalize contraception in the 20 century The birth control movements achieved success in the 1960s and 1970sTwo decisions of the US Supreme Court Griswold v Connecticut 1965 and Eienstadt v Baird 1972 overthrew laws that banned the use or distribution of contraceptives Burden of education and service provision has fallen on nongovernmental organizations such as Planned Parenthood Contraception has not Yet Solved the Problem of Unwanted Births 90 of American women aged 15 to 45 who are sexually active and fertile but do not want to become pregnant are using some contraceptive technique More than 3 million unwanted pregnancies occur in the US each yearHalf of these result from not using any method of contraception but the other half result form failure of a method that was used though perhaps not properly Another practical problem is financial where many medical insurance plans do not cover contraceptive drugs or devices that require a prescription or do so less generously than for other kinds of drugs and devices Different users have Different Contraceptive Needs PerfectUse Failure Rate The percentage of women using a contraceptive technique correctly who will become pregnant in a year Less than 1 will become pregnantTypicalUse Failure Rate The percentage of women using a contraceptive technique with a typical degree of care who will become pregnant in a year 8 for the pill Individual users may have risk factors that make specific methods inadvisable for themFor most young people the answer is yes but for adults who are certain they dont want children irreversible methods sterilization may be preferableSTD protection offered by condoms is an important added advantage Some methods such as condoms require some time and attention before or during every sexual encounter Some methods require taking pills on a precise scheduleSome methods require substantial upfront expenditure some require continual purchase over time and some are free or nearly soFor some users it may be important to be in charge of the contraception method rather than leaving the responsibility to partners who might not be reliable Physical Methods Block Sperm TransportMale Condoms are Reliable when properly UsedMale Condom A sheath placed over the penis as contraceptive andor to prevent disease transmissionBarrier Method Any contraceptive technique in which a physical barrier such as a condom or diaphragm prevents sperm from reaching the ovumMost condoms are made of latex some are made of polyurethane plastic and some of animal intestinal tissue NotesFromReadingCHAPTER12CONTRACEPTIONANDABORTIONPGS356397When used properly they are an effective contraceptive and they also provide substantial protection against transmission of STDs including HIVA potential disadvantage of latex condoms is that they may lessen the senations of coitus especially for the man Naturaltissue lambskin condoms are also effective contraceptives but they are known to be ineffective in preventing the transmission of HIV and other viral STDsAdvantages of Male CondomsDisadvantages of Male CondomsIt is cheap and readily accessiblePutting on a male condom can be intrusive during sex because it cannot be put on until man already It is reliable when properly usedhas an erectionOffers significant protection against STDS and Man must maintain his erection for as long as the thus help protect fertility condom is in useLacks the possible side effects of hormonebased Erotic sensation may be reduced contraceptivesReliability is highest when both partners are It is fully and immediately reversible involved in condom use decisionsFemale Condoms are Relatively IntrusiveFemale Condom A plastic pouch inserted into the vagina as a contraceptive andor to prevent disease transmission To insert the condom the inner ring is first squeezed between the fingers and then pushed into the vagina with a finger until it cant be felt During coitus the mans penis should be guided into the inside of the condomAfter use the outside should be twisted to enclose the content and the condom gently pulled out should be done before the woman stands upAdvantages of Female CondomsDisadvantages of Female CondomsOnly contraceptive that is controlled by the Tends to be less appealing to menwoman that probably offers substantial protection Possibility that the man will unwittingly insert his from STDs including HIVpenis into the vagina outside of the condom Can be inserted ahead of time thus avoiding any nullifying its barrier function interruption of lovemakingSometimes entire condom may be drawn into the Does not require the man to maintain an erection vagina during coitusduring useMale and female condoms should not be used Easily and immediately reversiblesimultaneously because the friction between them may pull one of them out of placeCan be used for anal sex if inner ring is removedDiaphragms and Cervical Caps are Inconvenient but Have few Side EffectsDiaphragm A barrier placed over the cervix as a contraceptive It is a domeshaped piece of silicone or latex that is stiffened by a springlike strip around its perimeter It fits against the walls of the vagina covering the cervix Diaphragm should be left in place for at least 6 hours after sex but no more than 24 hours in totalFor repeated sex while the diaphragm is still in place more spermicide should be placed in the vagina without dislodging the diaphragm Advantages of DiaphragmDisadvantages of DiaphragmSomewhat less intrusive than condoms Inconvenient both because of the necessity for because it can be inserted ahead of time professional fitting and because of the need for and does not usually affect sensation during insertion removal and cleaningsexOccasionally get dislodged during coitusRelatively cheapFailure rate is significantly greater than that of hormoneLongterm use of diaphragm is associated based methods and slightly greater than condomswith a lowered risk of cervical cancer Provides much less disease protection than condomsprobably because the diaphragm offers
More Less

Related notes for PSY354H5

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.