Dec 4/2013 – Exam review for PSY362 – no time yet
ANIMAL COMMUNICATION: SOUND & OTHER MODALITIES
- What makes humans unique? Language. But that may not be the case. There may be
other animals that participate in language.
- Language: abstract symbolic representation
- Syntax: humans can do syntax.
o Other species can identify symbols but they cannot do syntax to form a sentence
- Exception: primates and dolphins
COMMUNICATION FOR PROBLEMS IMPORTANT FOR SURIVIVAL:
- Communication helps us to adapt to our environment (Strength in numbers).
- Communication is a social behavior.
- It helps us solve problems that are important for survival.
o What are some problems?
1. Warning of predators. If we can communicate to each other that there is a
predator, we all win.
2. Finding food. There is something we can eat.
3. Sex - social relationships (bonding) – book refers to it as group cohesion.
4. Identification – letting others know who you are.
- Communication in the wild (spontaneous)
- Make 36 different sounds
- Spontaneous emission of sounds suggest that they have some form of
- Same calls for different predators (different calls for same predator) suggests language
- There is more than one way of describing the same thing: classification and diagnosis
- These sounds are fairly complex symbols - they are displaying language (no syntax
- Not only clicks, but also pure tone sounds (signature whistles – IDENTIFICATION)
- Imitative sounds of family members (GROUP COHESION)
- Respond to symbols (is this conditioning or do they understand wha