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PSY362 NOV 25.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Peter Morrow

Dec 4/2013 – Exam review for PSY362 – no time yet ANIMAL COMMUNICATION: SOUND & OTHER MODALITIES - What makes humans unique? Language. But that may not be the case. There may be other animals that participate in language. - Language: abstract symbolic representation - Syntax: humans can do syntax. o Other species can identify symbols but they cannot do syntax to form a sentence or idea. - Exception: primates and dolphins COMMUNICATION FOR PROBLEMS IMPORTANT FOR SURIVIVAL: - Communication helps us to adapt to our environment (Strength in numbers). - Communication is a social behavior. - It helps us solve problems that are important for survival. o What are some problems? 1. Warning of predators. If we can communicate to each other that there is a predator, we all win. 2. Finding food. There is something we can eat. 3. Sex - social relationships (bonding) – book refers to it as group cohesion. 4. Identification – letting others know who you are. Vervet monkeys - Communication in the wild (spontaneous) - Make 36 different sounds - Spontaneous emission of sounds suggest that they have some form of communication - Same calls for different predators (different calls for same predator)  suggests language - There is more than one way of describing the same thing: classification and diagnosis - These sounds are fairly complex symbols - they are displaying language (no syntax though) Dolphins - Not only clicks, but also pure tone sounds (signature whistles – IDENTIFICATION) - Imitative sounds of family members (GROUP COHESION) - Self-awareness - Respond to symbols (is this conditioning or do they understand wha
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