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PSY395H5 (4)
Chapter 1

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Melissa Holmes

Chapter 1  Behavioral endocrinology: study of interaction between hormones & behaviour o Bi-directional (hormones affect behaviour, behaviour affects hormones) Historical Roots of Behavioural Endocrinology th  Recognized as a discipline in middle of 20 century (Hormones & Behaviour, 1948) Endocrine Glands, Hormones, and Behaviour  Testes  testosterone  sexual behavior, territoriality, hibernation, migration o Outside body, in cavity  Castration  manipulation of endocrine system o Better to eat/easier to control  Eunuchs: castrated males watched over females o Before puberty: no effect on behaviour/appearance o After puberty: short, long arms, no sexual behavior, secondary sex characteristics affected (no beards, voice does not develop)  Castrati: males castrated so they can perform in Opera Berthold’s Experiment (first formal study of endocrinology)  Results: substance produced by testes travel through blood and affects behavior o Product of testes necessary for cockerel (immature male chicken) to develop into normal adult rooster  Rooster  mate with hens, fight, crow, large, distinct plumage  Capons (castrated male chicken; before adulthood – tender meat) o Not the same behavioural/physical characteristics as roosters o No mating, not aggressive, back down, don’t crow Experiment: 6 cockerels, 3 groups (2 in each group) First group: castrated  Developed as Capons o Didn’t fight, crow; monotone voice, avoided females, no mating, looked different (small head & body, pale combs + wattles) Second group: castrated, testes placed in abdomen  Developed normal rooster behavior (crowed, same appearance)  testes attached to intestines & had vascular supply, doubled in size, sperm Third Group: castrated, testes put in each other’s abdomen  Developed normally Three Major Conclusions Drawn (1) Testes are transplantable organs (2) Transplantable testes can function & produce own sperm (tree branch with own fruit) (3) No specific nerves directing function (all nerves cut) “secretory blood-borne product” (aka. hormone) for transplanted testes = normal development Ideas for/from Experiment  ¾ parameters for hypotheses = behavioural o Mating, aggression, vocalization, appearance  Pangenesis theory of inheritance o All body parts discha
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