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Chapter 9

PSY399 - memory chapter 9

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY399H5
Professor
Adams
Semester
Summer

Description
Memory
 

 Process
of
Memory
 • implicit
memory‐‐our
recollection
of
information
that
was
not
consciously
encoded
and
stored
 • explicit
memory
is
our
recollection
of
information
that
has
been
consciously
encoded,
stored
and
 retrieved
 
 • includes
three
components:
 – encoding‐‐processing
information
and
integrating
it
into
our
existing
storehouse
of
memory
 – storage‐‐the
process
of
keeping
information
in
memory
 – retrieval‐‐recalling
information
from
memory
when
it
is
required
 – for
these
processes
to
be
activated,
the
organism
must
attend
to
certain
information
for
 further
processing‐‐called
attention
 

 Process
of
Memory
 • information
is
moved
into
memory
is
through:
 – rote
rehearsal
which
involves
repeating
the
information
over
and
over
again
 – elaborative
rehearsal
in
which
information
is
made
meaningful
by
linking
it
to
information
 already
in
our
long
term
memory
stores
 
 • the
serial
position
effect
involves
both
the
primacy
and
recency
effect
 • the
primacy
effect‐‐words
at
the
beginning
of
a
list
will
be
remembered
better
because
more
 rehearsal
is
taking
place
 • the
recency
effect‐‐words
at
the
end
of
a
list
will
be
remembered
best
of
all
because
they
are
most
 recently
placed
in
memory
 Hermann
Ebbinghaus
 • Hermann
Ebbinghaus
developed
the
simple
principle:
the
amount
remembered
depends
on
the
 time
spend
learning
 – rote
rehearsal
which
involves
repeating
the
information
over
and
over
again
 – he
used
CVCs
(consonant‐vowel‐consonant
nonsense
words)
 – the
more
time
he
practiced
the
CVCs
on
Day
1,
the
fewer
repetitions
required
on
Day
2
 – developed
a
forgetting
curve—the
course
of
forgetting
is
initially
rapid,
then
levels
off
with
 time
 
 Three
Stages
of
Memory
Diagram
p.
376
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Three
Stages
of
Memory
 • Stage
1‐‐
sensory
memory
involves
storing
information
for
a
very
short
period
of
time:
 – iconic
(visual)
memory
lasts
about
one
half
second.
 – echoic
(auditory)
memory
last
about
three
to
five
seconds
 • the
initial
tests
of
sensory
memory
involved
looking
at
visual
display
like
this
for
a
fraction
of
a
 second
and
then
being
asked
to
recall
all
the
letters:
 
 
 
 F









B









Y
 
 
 
 H









T









Q
 
 
 
 N









K









P
 
 • subjects
could
consistently
only
remember
about
four
letters
 • this
is
called
the
whole­report
method
 
 • George
Sperling
used
the
same
3
x
3
matrix
but
played
a
high,
medium
or
low
tone
when
the
 letters
were
flashed‐‐these
tones
corresponded
to
the
top,
middle
or
bottom
line
of
letters
 
 
 
 F









B









Y
 
 
 
 H









T









Q
 
 
 
 N









K









P
 
 • subjects
consistently
remembered
all
three
letters,
regardless
of
what
tone
was
played
during
the
 experiment
 • Sperling’s
method
is
called
the
partial­report
method
 • this
helped
to
establish
nine
items
as
the
capacity
for
sensory
memory
 
 • the
whole‐report
method
failed
because,
by
the
time
subjects
reported
four
letters,
the
rest
of
the
 letters
had
faded
from
memory
 • the
partial‐report
method
eliminated
this
memory
fade
 
 • Stage
2‐‐
short
term
memory,
or”
working
memory”,
briefly
stores
and
processes
selected
 information
from
the
sensory
registers
 • research
indicates:
 – STM
has
limited
storage
capacity
 – STM
can
store
5‐9
chunks
of
information.
 • chunking
involves
grouping
information
into
meaningful
units
for
easier
handling,
like
 area
codes
or
zip
codes
 – information
in
STM
is
forgotten
in
15‐20
seconds
if
it
is
not
rehearsed
 – phonological
(or
acoustical)
encoding
is
the
predominant
means
by
which
information
is
 stored
in
STM
 
 • Stage
3‐‐
long
term
memory
stores
information
indefinitely
and
has
an
unlimited
capacity.
 • research
has
indicated
specific
qualities
of
long
term
memory:
 – some
psychologists
believe
the
information
is
never
truly
forgotten
but
that
it
just
cannot
be
 accessed
in
LTM
 – some
psychologists
believe
that
our
memories
about
specific
events
are
fused
with
our
hopes,
 expectations
and
unique
perspectives
so
that
they
are
often
quite
different
from
the
actual
 event
 
 Types
of
Long
Term
Memory
 • there
are
four
types
of
LTM:
 – procedural
memory‐‐contains
learned
associations
between
stimuli
and
responses,
like
how
to
 tie
your
shoes
or
drive
a
car
 – semantic
memory‐‐stores
general
facts
and
information,
like
information
you
need
to
learn
for
 a
test
 – episodic
memory‐‐stores
more
specific
information
that
has
personal
meaning,
like
going
on
 your
first
date
 – declarative
memory‐‐our
memory
of
day‐to‐day
conversations
and
events
 
 Types
of
Long
Term
Memory
Diagram
p.
368
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Eidetic
and
Flashbulb
Memory
 • eidetic
imagery­­commonly
called
photographic
memory,
this
is
the
ability
to
recall
specific
details
 of
information
 • flashbulb
memory­­this
is
a
vivid
recollection
of
a
significant
event
from
episodic
memory
 
 Explicit
Encoding
and
Retrieval
 • explicit
methods
of
retrieval
from
LTM:
 – include
recognition
and
recall
 – usually
entail
information
in
semantic
memory
 
 • recognition­­identifying
previously
learned
material
 – for
example,
multiple
choice
tests
where
there
is
a
question
followed
by
four
or
five
possible
 answers
 – easier
than
recall
because
most
or
all
of
the
retrieval
cues
are
present
 
 • recall‐‐coming
up
the
information
purely
from
memory
 – more
difficult
because
fewer
retrieval
cues
are
available
 • two
types
of
recall
tasks:
 – free
recall
allows
the
subject
to
recall
information
in
any
order
(e.g.
words
memorized
from
a
 list
in
any
order)
 – serial
recall
requires
the
subject
to
recall
information
in
a
specific
order
(e.g.
words
 memorized
from
a
list
in
the
order
in
which
they
appear
on
the
list)
 
 Implicit
Encoding
and
Retrieval
 • implicit
methods‐‐involve
the
inner
workings
of
memory
organization
and
recall
that
are
not
so
 overt
 • one
foundation
of
learning
theory
is
that
memory
will
increase
the
more
you
review
the
material‐‐ subsequent
learning
of
the
material
is
easier
and
takes
less
time
 • research
has
also
found
that
subjects
that
have
suffered
retrograde
amnesia
have
still
shown
 recall
abilities
from
procedural
memory‐‐their
episodic
memory
surrounding
the
event
is
what
is
 typically
affected

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